Vehicular Signals

Document No:  D15#792478
 
Revision:  9K
 
Date amended:  10-Feb-2017

Image: orange line.RCN-D13^23151823.GIF 

 

The information below is intended to reflect the preferred practice of Main Roads Western Australia ("Main Roads"). Main Roads reserves the right to update this information at any time without notice. If you have any questions or comments please contact Bita Charehjoo by e-mail or on (08) 9323 4439.

To the extent permitted by law, Main Roads, its employees, agents, authors and contributors are not liable for any loss resulting from any action taken or reliance made by you on the information below or changes to its preferred practice.

Revision Register

 

Ed/Version 
Number
Clause Number Description of Revision Date
5 All Guideline reviewed and updated. 04-Apr-2009
6 4.1 Drawing 8320-400 amended. 12-Apr-2013
6A 4.1 Drawing 200431-0012 amended. 29-Jul-2013
7 2.5.5 Median pole requirement added. 11-Sep-2013
8 2.5.6.4
3.2.2
3.4.1
300mm lanterns removed.
Signal Approach Grades Added.
Yellow Times Table added.
25-Feb-2014
8A 4.1 Drawings 200431-0184, 200431-0185, 200531-0043 and 201031-0012 removed. 05-Mar-2014
9 All AUSTROADS references updated. Various minor editorial changes 29-Apr-2014
9A 2.3.5, 2.4.4, 2.4.5
& 4
Hard copy record numbers e.g. 37/09/01 removed.
Drawing 200431-0108 for School Crossings Signal Layout replaced by drawing 9531-2169.
06-May-2014
9B 2.5.5 Warrants for overhead signals added and clause restructured. 01-Jul-2014
​9C​3.4.1​Table H2 modified​21-Aug-2014
9D 4.1 Drawing 200431-0125 amended. 01-Dec-2014
​9E​4.1​Drawing 8320-400 amended.​31-Aug-2015
​9F​2.5.10.1 & 2.5.11.2​Clause reviewed and amended.​18-Dec-2015
​9G​4.1

​Drawings 200431-0100, 200431-0104, 200431-0105 amended.
Drawings 201431-0015 and 201531-0060 added.

​02-Jun-2016
​9H​4.1​Drawings 9531-2169 and 200431-0116 amended.​16-Jun-2016
​9I ​ ​

​2.5.3, 2.5.6.9, 5.11.2

​Communications Requirements updated.

​30-Jun-2016 ​ ​
​7​ITS Communications Mode Flowchart removed.
​9J​4.1​Drawing 9531-2169 amended.​18-Jul-2016
​9K​4.1​​Drawings 9531-2169 and 200431-0116 amended.​10-Feb-2017

Table of Content


CHAPTER 1 - VEHICULAR SIGNALS

 

1. GENERAL

1.1 Purpose

The purpose of this guideline is to detail the standards and procedures required for the design of traffic signals in Western Australia and to provide guidelines on the application of these standards.

The guidelines in this document and its associated chapters are complementary to the following national guidelines:

    • Guide to Traffic Management Part 6: Intersections, Interchanges and Crossings (AGTM06-14),
    • Guide to Traffic Management Part 9: Traffic Operations (AGTM09-14),
    • Guide to Traffic Management Part 10: Traffic Control and Communications Devices (AGTM10-09),
    • Guide to Road Design Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections (AGRD04A-10), and
    • Standard Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (AS1742) Part 14 - Traffic Signals (1996)

This guide must be used in conjunction with these standards.

It is not practicable to completely standardise the design of traffic signals. However, to ensure uniformity it is important to standardise the design procedures. When there is ambiguity, these guidelines take precedence over mentioned guidelines.

The objective is to enable a designer to produce a full complement of drawings and documentation that is suitable for forwarding to a construction group for implementation.

 

1.2 Scope

This guideline covers the design of traffic signals within Western Australia including intersections generally affected by traffic signal operation.

It outlines the relevant standards and procedures to be followed when producing a traffic signal design. It provides guidance on components of traffic signal equipment and intersection arrangement, and details design output requirements and their presentation.

This guideline is to be used in conjunction with Main Roads Guide to Road Design and Traffic Management Guidelines for Traffic Control Devices.

The complete documentation of traffic signal design will consist of designs produced in accordance with this guideline and as well as series of standard drawings, charts and tables.

 

1.3 Authority and Responsibility

The Commissioner of Main Roads Western Australia has sole authority under Regulation 297 of the Road Traffic Code 2000 to erect, establish or display, and alter or take down any traffic signal. The Commissioner has delegated his authority to the Executive Director Road Network Services.

 

2. DESIGN PROCEDURES

2.1 General Principals

The design of new traffic signals, or modifications to existing traffic signals, is influenced by many factors. These may include traffic conditions, maintenance considerations, road geometry, location of services, signal equipment and economic considerations. The expectation of future expansion may also influence the design.

A traffic controlled intersection design involves several engineering disciplines such as software preparation, electrical design and traffic engineering, some of which are highly specialised but unrelated. It is essential that suitably experienced personnel manage each element.

The overall design process consists of several components. Many of these are interrelated. A change in any one element may influence others which have previously been established, but which may need to be reconsidered.

The choice of individual design elements must be based on established standards, guidelines and practices, and any departures must be documented with substantiation (e.g. turning pocket length based on deceleration requirements and predicted queue lengths, but limited by road reserve and environmental issues).

It is important that the designer ensures compliance with general standards, as well as site specific requirements and issues.

 

2.2 Traffic Operational Design

2.2.1  SIDRA Analysis

A SIDRA analysis of the traffic improvement measure shall be carried out. The SIDRA analysis report shall be prepared in consultation with Traffic Engineering Officers who are based at Main Roads Traffic Operation Centre seeking guidance on the preparation of a SIDRA analysis report. Appendix A is provided as a guide when preparing SIDRA reports.

When undertaking SIDRA analyses default parameters should not be altered unless evidence can be supplied to support the use of alternative values.

The version of SIDRA currently used by Main Roads WA shall be used in the analysis.

 

2.3 Intersection Design

2.3.1  General

The aim of intersection design is to improve traffic flow and reduce the likelihood and severity of crashes. Guidance to a wide range of issues that require consideration in the intersection design process can be obtained from the AUSTROADS, 'Guide to Traffic Management' series and Main Roads 'Road and Traffic Engineering Guidelines'.


2.3.2  Survey Drawings

Engineering surveys, verification plots, digital data and survey drawings shall be prepared for the site in accordance with AS1100.401 [Technical drawing - Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing] and Main Roads Survey and Mapping Standards.

The surveys shall include all above- and below-ground services and property boundaries and other site features such as driveways, trees, major signs, bus stops etc..


2.3.3  Co-ordinate System

The surveys and design shall be based on the standard co-ordinate system available from the Main Roads Senior Geodetic Surveyor.


2.3.4  Service Authorities

A search for the existence of services shall be undertaken with the respective service authorities. Using the 'Dial before you dig' service, phone 1100, is recommended. The existing location or cost of relocation, of services may affect the traffic signal design. All traffic signal components should have the required clearances to underground or overhead services.

The Contractor shall liaise with the service authorities to identify all services that require relocation or access, and any easements 

Quotations from the relevant service authorities shall be obtained to develop the most cost effective design in the long term, allowing for future development, expansion etc. Where cost constraints occur due to the relocation of existing services or easements, alternative intersection designs shall be considered.

Any easements that may affect the construction and maintenance, and services that may require relocation, must be identified and details provided on the drawings.


2.3.5  Geometric Design

The geometric design of the intersection shall be in accordance with Main Roads Guide to Road Design and Drainage Guidelines.

Further information is available in the following Main Roads Documents:

Horizontal curves should not continue through signalised intersections. Where possible, vehicles at the stop line intending to travel straight through should be directly facing the respective exit lane. Horizontal curves should be accommodated in the approaches and departures. This reduces potential sideswipe problems, and the need for guidelines and raised pavement markers, which may pose a risk to motorcyclists, and may suffer from high wear, requiring frequent maintenance.

Intersections for traffic signals should be kerbed and include Roadway and public spaces lighting where practical.

Deficiencies in the geometric layout of an existing intersection must be identified and, where practicable, rectified before, or as part of, designing traffic signals.

Where cost constraints occur due to acquisition of additional private land limitations, topography or other features, alternative intersection designs shall be considered.

As far as practicable the geometric design should allow for modification such as (but not limited to):

    • adding / changing phases.
    • adding turning arrows.
    • accommodating diamond turning movements.
    • adding pedestrian facilities / signals (pedestrian ramps should comply with standards.
    • signalising left slips.
    • installing bicycle lanes and pedestrian crossings (zebra crossings) on left slips.
    • seeking approvals for native vegetation constraints, aboriginal heritage etc.
    • site fixtures such as awnings, ornamental fixtures, camera poles and Red Light Cameras.


2.3.5.1  Corner and median islands

Corner and median island dimensions shall take the following into account:

    • clearance of posts, lanterns and attachments from traffic.
    • clearance of termination pits and cable draw pits from traffic.
    • 2m minimum separation between audio-tactile pedestrian push buttons.
    • location of loop pits.
    • access to conduits.
    • clearance between conduits, pits and post footings.
    • location of traffic signs and traffic direction signs.
    • ramps, medians , gaps and walk through arrangement at pavement level.
    • access to pedestrian push buttons.


2.3.6  Maintenance

The geometric design, in conjunction with the traffic signal equipment and roadway lighting layout, should consider the ability to perform maintenance functions such as pavement marking, traffic signal and roadway lighting lamp replacement, and traffic signal repairs, in a safe and efficient manner.


2.3.7  Pavement Design

The pavement surface on the approaches to traffic signals shall be free of any changes in colour or texture, which could cause confusion over the correct stopping location. Where different colours or textures are used they shall extend from the stop line to the start of the 'no stopping' zone. At the intersection, any colour or texture change, or concrete 'beam', shall be directly in line with the stop line (or bicycle stop line where head start facilities are installed).
The designed pavement thickness shall allow loops to be cut into the road


2.3.8  Signs and Pavement Marking

Signs and pavement marking shall be in accordance with Main Roads Traffic Management Guidelines for Traffic Control Devices and Main Roads Pavement Marking Drawings.


2.3.9  Local Authority

The local authority shall be contacted to identify any requirements, or information, which may influence the design of the traffic signals.


2.3.10  Restricted Access Vehicles and Loads (High Wide Load)

The design shall allow for the requirements of restricted access vehicles and loads along designated restricted vehicle load routes and should allow for other requirements as advised by the Director Heavy Vehicle Operations Branch. 

 

2.4 Traffic Signal Functions

2.4.1  General

The main purpose of traffic signals is to reduce or eliminate conflict between various road user movements by allocating right-of-way, thereby reducing the number and severity of crashes. However, traffic signals have the potential to introduce seemingly unnecessary stops and delays, thereby raising driver frustration and leading to poor driver behaviour. The need for traffic signals, the functional aspects and the effects on the overall road network require careful consideration to avoid adverse consequences.


2.4.4.1 Parallel walks with partial protection

When parallel walks with time delay protection are installed (new or upgraded sites). MR-GT-20 "Turning Vehicles Give Way to Pedestrians" signs are to be installed as primary displays on poles nearest to the left or right turn movement where the rule applies. Signs to be removed after three months.


2.4.2  Warrants / Criteria

Traffic signals should generally only be considered where the Main Roads warrants and criteria are met. The warrants and criteria shall be applied to the following:

    • Intersection Vehicular Traffic Signals
    • Mid-Block Pedestrian Signals
    • Pedestrian Signals at Intersections
    • Bicycle Signals at Intersections
    • Left Turn Arrows
    • Right Turn Arrows
    • Prohibition of Right Turn Filter
    • U-Turns


2.4.3  Network Effects

The potential effects on the surrounding road network, including (but not limited to) queue lengths, traffic flow, access, coordination with other signals, roundabouts, railway crossings, school crossings and public transport shall be investigated and documented, and taken into account in the traffic signal design.

This may require liaison with the Local Authority, Department of Planning Infrastructure (DPI), Public Transport Authority (PTA), Police, Main Roads, Rail Authority and other agencies.


2.4.4 Pedestrian Facilities

Pedestrian facilities at traffic signals shall generally be in accordance with the following:

    • Main Roads Policies and Guidelines including:
    • Guide to Road Design Part 4: Intersections and Crossings – General (AGRD04-09),
    • Guide to Road Design Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections (AGRD04A-10)
    • Guide to Road Design Part 6A: Pedestrian and Cyclist Paths (AGRD06A-09), plus other various parts of Guide to Road Design and Guide to Traffic Management and
    • AS1742.10.
       

All new traffic signals, including upgrades, that do not meet the access requirement for pedestrian signals initially, shall be designed with the electrical capacity to enable installation of pedestrian signals as, and when, the need arises. 


2.4.4.1 Parallel walks with partial protection

When parallel walks with time delay protection are installed (new or upgraded sites). MR-GT-20 "Turning Vehicles Give Way to Pedestrians" signs are to be installed as primary displays on poles nearest to the left or right turn movement where the rule applies. Signs to be removed after three months.

2.4.5 Cycling Facilities

Cycling facilities at traffic signals shall generally be in accordance with the following

2.4.6 Advance Warning Flashing Signals (AWFS)

Advance Warning Flashing Signals shall be in accordance with Main Roads Guidelines as detailed in Chapter 3 of this document.


2.4.7
 Red Light Infringement Cameras

All design inquiries concerning Red Light Cameras should be forwarded to Western Australia Police representatives as listed below:

    • Officer in Charge Infringement Management & Operations on (08) 9222 1339 or (08) 9222 1328
    • Officer in Charge Traffic Tech Unit on (08) 9222 1855 or (08) 9222 1017

Both above OICs contacts are at 2 Wellington Street, East Perth WA 6004.

 

2.4.8 All design

U-Turns at Traffic signals shall only be permitted where the conditions as detailed in Chapter 6 of this document allow.

 

2.4.9 Phasing

Phasing shall generally be in accordance with AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 9 (2014) with the following additions:

    • Multi-lane left slips shall be controlled by signals and shall not have any conflicting movements (e.g. opposing right turn into the same lanes).

    • Multi-lane right turns shall be controlled by arrows, and shall be prevented from filtering.

    • Right turn traffic across 3 or more through lanes should be prevented from filtering. 

    • Right turn traffic shall be prevented from filtering where approach speeds are 80km/h or more.

    • Right turn traffic shall be prevented from filtering where the road is classified District Distributor A and above.

    • Right turn movements under partial control shall operate in the 'red arrow drop out' mode only.

    • Pedestrian signals shall be in accordance with Chapter 2 of this document.

    • The maximum speed limit traffic signals operate in WA is 80km/hr.

    • Left turn red arrow protection is required for Parallel Pedestrian Crossing when the speed limit is 70 Km/hr.

    • Left Turn red arrow protection is required for parallel pedestrian crossing when turn left out of a 'T' junction.

    • Special requirements for bus lanes, cyclists and people with disabilities.

    • Coordination with adjacent traffic signal sites, where required for traffic and congestion Management purposes.

 

 

Where practicable do not follow a high speed vehicle phase, or a heavy right turn movement, with a pedestrian walk signal across that direction.

Where practicable all road users should have good sight lines to others of the previous phase who may be late or slow in completing their manoeuvres, especially when following a high speed vehicle phase.

[Note: in this context 'high speed' refers to a vehicle movement where there is an increased risk of red light infringement, usually associated with high approach speed or significant downgrades]

Phasing, coordination (SCATS), geometric design, SIDRA analysis, and signal timing is an integrated process; any change requires a review of the others.

 

2.5 Traffic Signal Components

2.5.1 General

Orientation, horizontal and vertical location of traffic signal components, will be influenced by numerous factors such as geometric layout, location of services (see also Utility Providers Code Of Practice), roadside furniture, buildings, verandas and awnings.

The drawings shall show all the components required and provide details such as locations, mounting heights, minimum horizontal and vertical clearances, as well as any special requirements, modifications or variations from the standards. The design documentation shall include details of specific requirements such as approvals or permits from the Local Authority, other agencies or property owners.

Modifications to existing traffic signals should consider the design and construction of, and compatibility with, existing components.

All components of traffic signals shall be installed wholly within the road reserve. No part of the installation shall encroach onto private or commercial property, or property owned by other agencies.


2.5.2 Power Supply

The electricity supply authority will generally only connect power to a location for the Point of Attachment via an underground service pillar.

At specific locations determined by MRWA, facilities for an external emergency power supply shall be provided. Details for each site shall be obtained from Main Roads .


2.5.2.1 New Traffic Signal Installation with Advanced Warning Flashing Signals

If Advanced Warning Flashing Signals are included as a requirement in the design for new traffic signals then the back-up power (UPS) shall be provided for the traffic signal installation.


2.5.2.2 Existing Traffic signals-Future fitment of Advanced Warning Flashing Signals

If future Advance Warning Flashing Signals are proposed to be fitted to the existing Traffic Signals then back-up power source (UPS) shall be provided for traffic signals.


2.5.2.3 New Traffic Signals linked to railway Level Crossing Flashlights/Boom Barriers

If new Traffic signal installations have a requirement to be linked to railway crossing flashlight or boom barrier systems then a back-up power source (UPS) shall be provided for the traffic signals.


2.5.3  Communications

All Main Roads' traffic signals are connected to SCATS through various communication systems to allow real-time monitoring as well as coordination between traffic signals.  Currently traffic signals can be connected to SCATS using Fibre Optic, RF, ADSL, and 3G/4G (only when sites are unable to receive any other form of communication). Contact the Main Roads' Traffic Systems Engineer (DLAssetTrafficSystemsEngineers@mainroads.wa.gov.au) responsible for the Main Roads' electrical assets communication infrastructure with details of the site and what devices will be connected to the site (ie CCTV).  The Traffic Systems Engineering team will investigate the type of communications available for the site and will specify the communication type and the required equipment for the site.  In addition the team will be able to determine whether additional space will need to be considered for the traffic signal controller cabinet to accommodate the communication equipment.


2.5.4 Controller

The controller and its associated cable draw pit, Earth pit and Communication pit shall be in accordance with Main Roads drawings 200431-0123 and 200431-0128 and located within the road reserve with the back of the controller facing the intersection where practicable.

The controller should be located where it: 

    • is close to the power supply and telecommunications.
    • is on reasonably level ground.
    • is accessible to maintenance vehicles and personnel.
    • can accommodate temporary external portable power supplies.
    • is preferably near a property boundary and away from the edge of road.
    • does not interfere with sight distance.
    • does not interfere with pedestrian and shared path facilities.
    • enables maintenance and operation personnel to have a clear view of traffic signals from the controller, if possible.

 

Where controllers are at risk of minor collision, e.g. with vehicles manoeuvring / parking on verges etc, protective bollards shall be installed. Bollards shall consist of stub posts without the push-button or wiring. (NOTE: the bollards must maintain some 'frangibility' and shall not be installed as 'crash barriers', i.e. shall not be installed in concrete footings or filled with any material)

Where two intersections are in close proximity (within say 120m) consideration should be given to operating them with one controller if they are operationally linked; i.e. there is no requirement to run them totally independently from one another. The controller should preferably be located at an equal distance between two the intersections, to reduce feeder cable length and interference.

Where the traffic signals are wired as star systems, and more than 12 posts are required, a dummy controller housing is required to provide space for the connections.
A dummy controller is not required where signals are wired in a pit system.


2.5.5 Traffic Signal Posts and Overhead Signal Faces (Mast Arms)

2.5.5.1 Traffic Signal Post Locations

Traffic signal posts shall generally be located in accordance with AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 10 and section 2.5.6.2 below. Post location shall accommodate the requirements of signal face layouts and lantern configuration (see section 2.5.6).

In addition, an absolute minimum clearance of 600mm shall be maintained between any portion of the fittings, lanterns or accessories and the kerb face. Clearances must be increased where there is a probability of conflict with the 'overhang' of vehicles such as buses, or the 'cutting in' of the rear end of long vehicles or trailers, or where the road has a significant camber which may cause high vehicles to 'lean in' towards the posts and attachments. The requirements of clearances for High Wide Loads shall also be met where applicable.

Where the lateral position is less than 1m clear from the kerb face (e.g. on narrow medians) consideration should be given to modifying the intersection geometry (e.g. widening the medians).

Where the median is wider than 6m two traffic signal posts shall be used.

Where there are more than two (2) posts along a kerb (e.g. opposite the stem of a T-junction) they shall be laterally offset sufficiently to provide clear sight lines to all aspects from all relevant approaches; i.e. the lanterns and visors on one post do not restrict sight lines to lanterns on another.

Traffic signal posts shall be longitudinally located such that pedestrian push buttons are easily reached from the top of pedestrian ramps by all pedestrians including the disabled. Where this cannot be readily achieved relocate traffic signal post or when not practical then separate pedestrian push button posts (stub posts) shall be provided.

Where the requirements for clearances for High Wide Loads apply, but the geometric layout and signal post location cannot be arranged to adequately cater for High Wide Loads, removable traffic signal posts are to be used and placed near a termination pit so that the post can easily be removed. (Mast arms are not removable)

 

2.5.5.2 Traffic Signal Post Numbering

Starting in a clockwise direction from the controller, each post shall be identified by a number. Typical traffic signal post arrangements are indicated on Main Roads drawings 0330-1944, 200431-0135, 200431-0136 and 200431-0137.

 

2.5.5.3 Use of Overhead Signal Faces (Mast Arms)

The use of overhead signal faces (mast-arms) should be minimised and shall only be with prior approval from Main Roads. Where practicable the geometric layout should be modified to avoid the necessity to use mast-arms. As per AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 10, mast arms are warranted:

    • where the stopping sight distance to the post-mounted signal face is inadequate, e.g. because of vertical or horizontal alignment, awnings, poles, trees or similar sight obstructions 
    • where the roadway is too wide for kerb mounted signal faces to fall within the driver’s line of sight

 

2.5.5.4 ‘Joint Use’ Arrangements for Traffic Signal Posts

'Joint use' arrangements (e.g. combined roadway lighting and traffic signals) shall not be used except with traffic monitoring cameras and mobile phone antennae.

 

2.5.5.5 Traffic Monitoring Camera requirements at Traffic Signals
The Main Roads Traffic Operations Centre Manager shall be contacted to ascertain the requirements for traffic monitoring camera posts.

2.5.6 Signal Display Arrangements

2.5.6.1 Signal Display Layouts

Use of 4-aspect single-column signal display layouts, or 3-column signal display layouts, should be avoided where possible and shall only be used with prior approval from Main Roads.

Signal display layouts shall be arranged such that at least one aspect is lit (or flashing) at any given time, except where 2-aspect signal display layouts are used for:

    • Roundabout metering signals where only yellow and red aspects are used.
    • mid-block access points; e.g. for emergency vehicles.
    • vehicular control at signalised pedestrian crossings on left turn slip lanes under 'give way' or 'stop' control.
    • 2-aspect yellow/green arrow lanterns shall only be used in combination with 3-aspect circular lanterns.
    • Where arrows are used in combination with circular aspects, at least one circular aspect shall be lit at any given time.
    • Where 2 columns of arrows are used, at least one arrow in each column shall be lit at any given time.


2.5.6.2 Signal Display Location

In general, primary signal posts and signal displays should be located such that they are as close as practicable to the direct line of vision of approaching drivers, taking into account the alignment of the approaching lanes. Secondary and tertiary signals posts and signal displays should be located such that they are as close as practicable to the direct line of vision of drivers when stopped at the stop line and when manoeuvring through the intersection, taking into account the alignment of the individual lanes; e.g. a dual secondary signal display may be out of direct line of vision when the driver is stopped at the stop line, but may come into direct line of vision when moving forward and waiting to turn.

Multiple signal displays are used to ensure drivers on multilane roads can see at least one signal display for each movement on the approach and on the departure. This allows for masking by adjacent vehicles, and also provides some redundancy in case of lamp failure.

Signal displays shall be arranged generally in accordance with AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 10 with the following variations:

    • In addition to a primary signal display, all approaches with 2 or more lanes (with or without a median) shall have a dual primary signal display or an overhead primary signal face.
    • At T-junctions the terminating roads should have a dual secondary signal face except where the right turn is permanently prohibited, or where it would be significantly out of the driver's direct line of vision (note: only right-turning vehicles which have to stop part way through their turn, for conflicting traffic or pedestrians, rely on the visibility of a dual secondary signal).
    • Where 2 columns of arrows are used a dual secondary signal display shall be provided'.
    • Split tertiary signals shall not be used.
    • Signalised left slip lanes shall have a primary and dual primary signal display located between the projection of the stop line and up to a distance of 3m downstream.
    • Single-lane signalised left slip lanes shall have at least a secondary signal display located on the median of the cross road.
    • Multi-lane signalised left slip lanes shall have a secondary and tertiary signal display, both located in the median of the cross road.
    • Mid-block signalised crossings shall be in accordance with Main Roads drawing 200431-0025.
    • Where parallel walks/no parallel walks are in place at sites without right turn arrows, there is no requirement for a "Dual Far Right Secondary Display".  

To assist in placing signals as close as practicable to the driver's direct line of vision, where medians are more than 6m wide consideration should be given to mounting the dual secondary signals on the same post as the dual primary signals of the opposing direction, instead of the far right corner

Where the right turn lane approach is aligned towards the right, and filtering is prohibited, splitting the 6-aspect secondary signal face and mounting the right turn arrows column on the same post as the dual primary signals of the opposing direction, and maintaining the dual secondary on the far right corner.

Typical layouts are provided on Main Roads drawing 200431-0117, 200431-0118, 200431-0119, and 200431-0120.


2.5.6.3 Signal Group Numbers

Signal groups shall be numbered generally in accordance with Main Roads drawing 200431-0117.


2.5.6.4 Size of Aspects

All new traffic signal lanterns shall be 200mm nominal diameter.


2.5.6.5 Lantern Mounting Heights

Lantern mounting heights shall be in accordance with Main Roads drawing 200431-0147.


2.5.6.6 Visors and Louvres

Visors and louvres shall be in accordance with AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 10 and AS1742.14.


2.5.6.7 Target Boards

Target boards shall be installed on all primary signal lanterns.

Target boards shall be installed on all secondary and tertiary signal lanterns, except in the following cases:

    • For single column lanterns: a single or double column primary or dual primary lantern exists behind the subject single column lantern and provides sufficient conspicuity against distracting backgrounds.
    • For double column lanterns: a double column primary or dual primary lantern exists behind the subject double column lantern and provides sufficient conspicuity against distracting backgrounds.
    • When the lantern is used solely for control of pedestrians and cyclists.


2.5.6.8 Lantern Aiming

Lanterns shall be aimed at the traffic for which they are intended; generally in accordance with Main Roads drawing 9748-1113.


2.5.6.9 Placement of combined Bicycle/Pedestrian Lanterns

Where Pedestrian Walk/Don't Walk and Bicycle Cycle/Don't Cycle lanterns are installed alongside each other, bicycle lanterns shall be installed to the right of the pedestrian lantern when facing the crossing.

2.5.7 Detection

2.5.7.1 Vehicle Detection

Vehicle detection shall be via stop line loop detector systems and counter loops compatible with SCATS operation. Loop design shall be in accordance with Main Roads drawings 200431-0135, 200431-0136, 200431-0137 and 200431-0167.

One symmetripole loop shall be installed in each (motorised) vehicle lane.

An 11m right-turn loop shall be installed in shared right-turn/through lanes where it is necessary to discriminate between directions of flow such that if the predominant flow is straight through the right-turn phase is not extended unnecessarily.

One rectangular bicycle loop shall be installed in each lane intended for sole use by bicycles.

Red Light Infringement camera loops shall consist of 2 rectangular loops for each (through) vehicle lane. These loops are only installed at specific locations determined by the West Australia Police Service and with Main Roads approval.

Loops shall be allocated to the left kerb or median (or right kerb) as indicated on the Main Roads drawings.

Loops, including cycle loops, shall be numbered L1, L2, etc, the reference for the first loop number is taken by placing the north point through the centre of the intersection and then working in an anticlockwise direction. go to the next intersection. Counting loops shall be numbered after all traffic loops are numberd. Camera loops shall be numbered CL1, CL2, etc, in an anticlockwise direction using the same starting point as the vehicle detector loops.

Bicycle detection markings shall be applied, in accordance with Main Roads drawing 200231 008, to the left-hand lane of each individual direction (i.e. the left-hand of the lanes from which vehicles can turn left, the left-hand of the through lanes and the left-hand of the lanes from which vehicles can turn right), except where there is a separate marked bicycle lane and detector loop available for the particular direction. Bicycle detection markings shall not be applied to lanes associated with a permanent 'revert phase'.


2.5.7.2 Pedestrian Detection

Pedestrian detectors shall be installed in accordance with Main Roads policies listed under Clause 2.4.4  as well as details provided in Clause 4 of Chapter 2 of this document.

Pedestrian push buttons are numbered sequentially PB1, PB2 etc generally in accordance with the following convention:

    • At 4-way intersections push buttons are numbered in an ascending order proportionally to the next highest vehicle signal group operating parallel to that push button. e.g. PB1 & PB2 are parallel to signal groups 1 & 2, and PB3 & PB4 are parallel to the cross road signals groups, with the remainder in a similar order to the order of the signal groups.
    • At 3-way junctions PB1 is parallel to signal group 1, PB2 is parallel to signal group 2, with the remainder in numbered in ascending order to the next highest vehicle signal group.
    • Pedestrian movement detectors (Above Ground Detectors or AGDs) are numbered sequentially AGD1, AGD2 etc in a clockwise direction starting from the one nearest to the controller.


2.5.8 Illuminated No Right Turn, No Left Turn, No Entry and No Exit

Where it is necessary to prohibit certain movements in peak periods, illuminated (flashing) aspects shall be installed. A minimum of two aspects shall be displayed for each direction of travel. They shall be attached as follows:

    • No Right Turn (NRT) - dual primary and secondary signal posts
    • No Left Turn (NLT) - primary and tertiary signal posts
    • No Entry (NE) - secondary and tertiary signal posts or equivalent locations
    • No Exit (NX) - primary and dual primary signal posts or equivalent locations

 

Illuminated movement prohibition lanterns are sequentially numbered NRT1, NRT2 etc. in a clockwise direction starting at the controller.


2.5.9 Advance Flashing Warning Signals

Advance Flashing Warning Signals shall only be installed with Main Roads' approval and in accordance with Main Roads Guidelines detailed in Chapter 3 of this document.

Advance Warning Flashing Signals installed with 'Prepare to Stop' signs on the approach to traffic signals shall be numbered AWFS S1, AWFS S2 etc. in a clockwise direction starting at the controller.

 

2.5.10  Cable Pits

2.5.10.1  General

There are three (3) categories of traffic signal installations in use in WA; pit system, star system and post-top system.

The star system is the preferred system and is to be used wherever possible. Cables run directly from controller to each pole. When more than 12 posts are required (such as a double intersection), a dummy controller, located diagonally opposite to the controller, shall be used for terminations to enable the connection of extra posts. The two controllers at the intersection (main controller and dummy controller) are to be connected via 4 x 80 mm conduits (including feeder loop cable) and terminate 51 core cable between the two controllers.

The pit system has the ring-main cable running between termination pits and the controller, with posts wired to the ring-main via its separate cable, but cannot be used where there is a high underground water level or unusually hard ground conditions. This system facilitates electrical isolation of posts, and maintenance and repairs. Where possible a minimum of 1m clearance should be maintained between pits and signal posts. Where possible pits should be located to allow conduits to be installed in straight lines. Pits shall not be installed in ramps and gaps. Where pits could be subject to flooding, Main Roads advice shall be sought prior to determining locations.

The post-top system has the ring-main cable running from post-top to post-top in a 'daisy chain' effect. Electrical isolation, maintenance and repairs can be more difficult than with the pit system. This is an outdated system. When modifying an existing post-top system consideration should be given to upgrading to the star or pit system.

New traffic signal installations shall be designed exclusively on the star system, except in extenuating circumstances. The pit system and post-top system should only be used for modifications to existing sites or new intersection sites where star system cannot be used. The viability will depend on the extent of the modifications. Guidance shall be sought from Main Roads on the desirability of upgrading.


2.5.10.2  Termination Pits

For a pit system, the minimum number of termination pits should generally be used, and positioned to allow for connection of up to 4 traffic signal posts each. (Note: up to 4 posts can also be connected directly to the controller) Where future expansion is anticipated, termination pits should be arranged to accommodate expected additional posts.

Termination pits are preferably located on verges away from traffic. Termination pits should not be located on islands, or narrow medians less than 6m wide, where there is a risk of errant vehicles injuring maintenance personnel, within the pit:

    • 60 km/h approach speed - 4 m for straight through lanes and 6 m on the outside of curves
    • 70 km/h approach speed - 5 m for straight through lanes and 7.5 m on the outside of curves
    • 80 km/h approach speed - 6 m for straight through lanes and 9 m on the outside of curves

Termination pits shall be designated A, B, C etc in a clockwise direction starting at the controller


2.5.10.3  Loop Pits

Loop pits should located in accordance with Main Roads drawings 200431-0135, 200431-0136, 200431-0137, 200431-0167, and where possible a minimum of 1.2 m clear of traffic.

Loop pits are generally at the front of the loops.

The location of loop pits for 11m loops and red light infringement camera loops should be as shown on Main Roads drawing 200431-0167.

Loop pits are not numbered.


2.5.10.4  Cable Draw Pits

Double lid cable draw pits shall be used where there is a significant change in direction of a conduit or along a conduit run. Where possible the pits should be 1.2 m minimum clear of traffic.

Double lid cable draw pits shall be designated DIBD1 (in front of the controller), DIBD2, DIBD3 etc in a clockwise direction.  (DIBD = Draw In Box Double-lid)

Single lid cable draw pits (P2 Type) shall be used for advance warning flashing signals with one at the base of each sign, and one approximately half way between the signs and the nearest termination pit or double lid cable draw pit. Where distances between pits exceed 65 m, particularly on curves, consideration should be given to providing additional pits to assist in cable installation.

Single lid cable draw pits are not numbered.


2.5.10.5  Earth Pits and Communication Pits

An earth pit and a communication pit shall be allocated beside each controller in accordance with Main Roads drawings 200431-0123.


2.5.11  Conduit

2.5.11.1  General

Conduit crossing roads should be preferably installed by under road boring, except where installed in conjunction with road construction where trenching may be used prior to sealing the road. Trenching through roads and driveways shall only be carried out with prior approval from Main Roads. Conduit crossing roads shall be installed in straight lines, preferably perpendicular to the traffic lanes and using the most direct route suitable for boring. This will require prior identification of all services and potential obstacles. Conduit should be installed where they can be readily accessed for cable installation by simple excavation without the need to disturb road pavement, concrete pads, pram ramps etc. Conduit shall not be installed under pedestrian ramps or gaps. A minimum of 200mm clearance shall be maintained between conduit and signal posts.


2.5.11.2  Star System

For a Star Wiring Pit system, conduits shall generally be located in accordance with Main Roads drawings 0648-3001 to 0648-3005.

All conduits shall be run through cable draw pits. Loop feeder conduits (only) shall be run through loop pits.

I.       One conduit per traffic signal traffic post.
II.      One loop feeder conduit per direction.
III.     From controller, two spare conduits at first leg.
IV.     From controller, one spare conduit at any subsequent leg.
V.      One white 50mm communications conduit going around the traffic signal site.
VI.     Two conduits at each loop pit except at end of feeder loop, where it's only one conduit.
VII.    For traffic signals requiring more than 12 posts:
       a.  4 x 80 mm from main controller to the dummy controller.
       b.  Terminate 51 core cables between the two controllers.


2.5.11.3  Pit System

For a Termination Pit system, conduits shall generally be located in accordance with Main Roads drawings 200431-0134, 200431-0135, 200431-0136 and 200431-0137.

All conduits shall be run through terminating pits and cable draw pits. Loop feeder conduits (only) shall be run through loop pits.  Where future expansion is anticipated, sufficient conduits should be arranged to accommodate expected additional posts and pits. The intent of these requirements is that it shall be possible to remove and replace any cable without excavation.

2.5.12  Cables

Cables shall be in accordance with AS/NZS 2276: series and Main Roads Specification 712.


2.5.12.1  Star System

In the star wiring system, all signal posts and loop pits are wired with 19 core cable back to traffic signal controller.

A maximum of 6 loop feeder cables are permitted in a single 50mm conduit.


2.5.12.2  Pit System

The ring-main cable (pit/controller to pit) should generally be 51 core.

Where the number of signal groups is limited, and there is no expectation of future expansion, 29 core cables may be used, such as T junctions, etc.

At mid-block pedestrian signals where the number of signal groups is limited, and there is no expectation of future expansion (e.g. the addition of above ground detectors), 19 core cables between each post and controller may be used.

Post connecting cables (pit/controller to post) shall be 19 core.

Stub Post cables and advance warning flashing signals cables shall be 5 core.


2.5.13  Railway Crossing Connections

Interconnection with railway crossing control systems shall be in accordance with Main Roads drawing 200431-0172, 200431-0173 and 200431-0105 and in conjunction with the rail authority. Cable and conduit will be installed by the Rail Authority up to, and into, the traffic signal controller, with final connections to be made by the traffic signal construction contractor.


2.5.14  Intelligent Transport Systems(ITS)

ITS requirements at each signalised intersection shall be discussed and approved by Main Roads.


2.5.14.1  Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Camera

CCTV cameras need to be considered in the construction of new and upgrades to each traffic signal intersection. Warrants on whether a CCTV camera is required at the each location shall be obtained from the Main Roads Traffic Operation Centre. Their contact details are detailed below:

Traffic Systems Operation Coordinator or Traffic Engineering Officers could be contacted on (08) 9323-4848


2.5.15  Red Light Infringement Cameras

All design inquiries concerning Red Light Cameras should be forwarded to Western Australia Police representatives as listed below:

    • Officer in Charge Infringement Management & Operations on (08) 9222 1339 or (08) 9222 1328
    • Officer in Charge Traffic Tech Unit on (08) 9222 1855 or (08) 9222 1017

Both above OICs contacts are at 2 Wellington Street, East Perth WA 6004.


2.6 Traffic Control Operation

2.6.1  General

In addition to geometric design, the safe and efficient operation of traffic signals depends largely on signal timings. Timings should generally be in accordance with AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 9, and should take into account the results of the SIDRA analysis. Where the intersection forms part of a linked system, the SCATS timings shall also be taken into account.


2.6.2  Railway Crossing Operation

The general principles of operation are:

Upon receipt of the 'early call' signal from the rail crossing control system the traffic signal controller shall move to the clearance phase (where required). The early call will remain active until after receipt of the late call.

Upon receipt of the 'late call' signal from the rail crossing control system (which activates the flashing red signals and the boomgates) the traffic signal controller shall move to the railway phase. The late call will remain active until after the train has cleared the crossing.

Upon removal of both the early and late call signals the traffic signal controller shall resume normal operation.

Liaison with the rail authority will be required to determine the time difference between the two signals supplied by the rail crossing control system.

The minimum time between the early and late call signals shall be such as to allow safe termination of any phase under the most adverse conditions (e.g. just started green or walk) and then running the clearance phase long enough to clear any vehicles possibly stored across the rail tracks. Potential vehicle numbers, types, lengths and acceleration performances shall be taken into account.

The maximum time between the early and late call signals shall be such that the traffic signals are not held in the clearance phase for excessive times prior to the railway phase, as this typically leads to deliberate disregard of the red traffic signals. This should generally not exceed the minimum time (as determined above) by more than 10 seconds.

Where the late call only is received without an early call, the traffic signal controller shall move to the clearance phase followed by the railway phase.

Where the early call only is received without a late call the traffic signal controller shall move to the clearance phase and remain there until the call is removed.

Unless otherwise approved by Main Roads the railway phase shall not operate until the flashing red signals and boomgates are activated. This is to ensure that no vehicles approaching the rail crossing from any direction will be stopped over the rail tracks.


3. DESIGN PRESENTATION

3.1 General

The quantity of drawings and documentation produced is dependent on the design requirements. The design presentation of an existing traffic signal site may require additional information over that of a new traffic signal site. Discretion and judgment should be exercised in the determination of which drawing details are necessary for a traffic signal treatment in any given situation. Similarly the design review requirements are dependent on the extent of the project.


3.1.1 Documentation and drawings are required to:

    • Enable the construction / implementation of the design.
    • Provide a record of the design processes and details for future reference.
    • Provide as constructed drawings and asset drawings upon completion of construction. 


3.1.2 Generally the full presentation consists of:

    • Geometric Design drawing
    • Traffic Signal Design drawing
    • Pavement Marking and Minor Signs Design drawing
    • Cable charts and signal controller charts
    • Support documentation
    • Lighting for Roadway and Public Spaces

All documentation, charts, diagrams etc, except for the drawings, shall be in Microsoft Word format, compatible with the latest software versions in use by Main Roads.

A copy of all documents and drawings shall be supplied in hard copy as well as in electronic format.


3.2 Drawings

The presentation of Traffic Signal Design drawings shall be in accordance with Main Roads Design and Drawing Guidelines.

[The presentation requirements for these are specified in the relevant Main Roads Guidelines]

Where modifications are proposed to an existing traffic signal site, a background of the existing layout shall be prepared. The background for the Traffic Signal Design drawing should include all existing features and details that would normally be required for a new design.

In the event that major works at an existing location include removal of traffic signal posts, the existing lanterns may be deleted from the posts on the drawing for clarity.

Where minor works are proposed, existing drawings may be utilised to produce a Traffic Signal Design drawing that meets the design requirements.

After the completion of any works at a traffic signal location, an 'As Constructed' drawing shall be prepared, or the existing 'As Constructed' shall be updated to reflect the works or modifications that have been carried out. Any relocations or modifications to services, or other assets, shall be documented and relevant drawings updated to the respective owners' requirements. 


3.2.1 Naming of Intersections on Traffic Signal Design and LM Drawings

The following procedure shall take place when stating road names in the title blocks of traffic signals and LM drawings;

If the intersection is between one main road and one minor road, the main road's name shall be stated first and followed by minor road's name.

If the intersection is between two main roads, then the road names should be stated in alphabetical order.

 

3.2.2 Signal Approach Grades

 

The grades on each approach shall be included on the Traffic Signal design drawing to allow for the correct calculation of signal timings. The grade of the approach shall be averaged across the length of the approach. The distance over which the average is calculated shall vary depending on the approach speed, as per the table below:

 

Approach Speed
(km/h)
Distance Grade Averaged Over
4​0 6​0m
5​0 9​0m
6​0 12​0m
7​0 ​150m
8​0 ​180m
  

3.3 Connections

3.3.1  General

All connections shall be as per the Main Roads Traffic Signals Standard drawings where applicable.


3.3.2  Cable Chart

The cable chart shall show core numbers and functions and all connections to the ring-main cable including:

    • Traffic controller terminals
    • Termination pit and post numbers
    • Vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle signal lanterns
    • Pedestrian push buttons
    • External detectors (e.g. AGDs)
    • Movement prohibition lanterns (e.g. flashing NO RIGHT TURN)
    • Advance Warning Flashing Signs
    • Red light infringement cameras


3.3.3  Wiring Diagram

Any special equipment, wiring or connections not covered in the Main Roads Traffic Signals Standard drawings, or in the cable chart, shall be shown on a separate diagram.


3.4 Traffic Signal Controller Program

All information required for traffic signal controller programming shall be prepared generally in accordance with AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 9. Design constraints, such as SCATS cycle times, shall be obtained from Main Roads.

The following charts shall form part of the design documentation:

    • Timing Chart
    • Intergreen & Pedestrian Time Settings Design Chart
    • Detector Chart
    • Phase Sequence Chart
    • Conflict Chart
    • SCATS Masterlink / Flexilink Chart
    • Special Features Documentation

 

See Main Roads Specification 711 for details.

 

3.4.1 Calculation of Yellow Times

 

The duration of yellow times at intersections shall be calculated using the table below modified from AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 9 (2014) - Appendix H:
 
The yellow times for an intersection on a grade must be the same for opposite traffic streams.
 
 
Table H 2: Yellow time values
Approach grade VD = 40 km/h ​​VD = 50 km/h VD = 60 km/h VD = 70 km/h ​​VD = 80 km/h VD = 90 km/h
10.1% to 15% downhill ​5.0 ​6.0 ​6.5 7.5​ ​8.5 9.5
6% to 10% downhill ​4.0 ​4.5 ​5.5 ​6.0 ​6.5 7.5​
4.1% to 5.9% downhill ​3.5 ​​4.0 ​4.5 ​5.0 ​5.5 6.0
Level (0%  to  Image: plus and minus sign - bold.GIF 4%) 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
4.1% to 5.9% uphill ​3.0 ​3.0 3.5​ ​​4.0 ​4.5 5.0​
6% to 10% uphill ​3.0 ​3.0 ​3.5 ​​4.0 ​4.5 4.5​
10.1% to 15% uphill ​3.0 ​3.0 ​3.5 ​3.5 ​4.0 4.5
 

 Note: Determined using ad = 3.0 m/s2 and tr = 1.0 s.


3.5 Support Documentation

3.5.1   General

Information used in the design process, or to substantiate specific design details, shall be documented. Details should include, where applicable, items such as:

    • vertical and horizontal alignment issues such as sight distance limitations,
    • variations from standards and guidelines,
    • Any other relevant item or feature.


3.5.2   SIDRA

It is mandatory that a SIDRA Report is submitted showing model runs and Level of Service associated with the design. Refer to Appendix A Guideline for preparing SIDRA report.


3.6 Supplementary Specifications

Specifications shall be prepared for each traffic signal project, which should include details not covered by the drawings, and any further detail required to carry out the works.

The specifications should include the following, but not limited to:

    • Description of the works,
    • Materials selected,
    • Installation standards and practices,
    • Construction details,
    • Provision for traffic management,
    • Work to be carried out by others.

3.7 Preliminary Design Review

As part of a 15% project design review the following shall be submitted:

    • a completed Traffic Signal Design drawing
    • an estimate of construction and service relocation costs
    • details of any special requirements, modifications or variations from the standards
    • details of specific requirements such as approvals or permits from the Local Authority, other agencies or property owners
    • Existing services, new services and services to be relocated, where they may affect the installation of traffic signal equipment, shall be shown and submitted on the accompanying Geometric Design drawing.

3.8. 85% Design Review

As part of an 85% project design review the following shall be submitted:

    • a completed Traffic Signal Design drawing
    • cable charts
    • wiring diagrams (where applicable)
    • all traffic signal controller program charts
    • all supporting documentation

4. APPLICABLE DRAWINGS

4.1 Main Roads Design Guideline Drawings
Traffic Control Signal Legends

8320-400

Traffic Signal Mast - 5.5m Outreach - General Arrangement & Details

0330-1944

Advance Warning Flashing Signs - Typical Electrical Construction

200431-0100

​Advance Warning Flashing Signs - Typical Electrical Construction Using Aluminium Frangible Posts201431-0015
Advance Warning Flashing Signs - ELV Lamp Signal Lanterns - Wiring Details

200431-0101

Advance Warning Flashing Signs - LED Signal Lanterns - Wiring Details

200431-0102

Advance Warning Flashing Signs - Region - LED Signal Lanterns - Wiring Detail201531-0060
Advance Warning Flashing Signs - At General Hazards - Typical Layout

200431-0104

Advance Warning Flashing Signs - At Rail Crossing - Typical Layout

200431-0105

Advance Warning Flashing Signs - School Crossings Signal Layout

9531-2169

Advance Warning Flashing Signals at School Crossings and Signs at Isolated Hazards - Schematic Circuit

200431-0109

Advance Warning Flashing Signals at School Crossings and Signs at Isolated Hazards - Controller Panel Layout

200431-0110

Advance Warning Flashing - Signals at School Crossing and Signs at Isolated Hazards - Switchboard Details

200431-0111

Advance Warning Flashing Signals - Typical Conduit Layout and Lantern Mounting Details - School Crossings

200431-0113

Traffic Control Signals - Puffin and Pelican Crossing - Signs and Pavement Marking

200431-0116

Traffic Control Signals - Parallel Pedestrian Walks with Partial protection - Give Way to Pedestrians Sign MR-GT-20

200431-0012

Traffic Control Signals - Typical Signal Display Locations -
4-Way Intersections with Split Phase

 200431-0118

     
Traffic Control Signals - Typical Signal Display Locations -
3-Way T-Junctions and Channelised Left Turns

200431-0119

Traffic Control Signals - Traffic Signal Faults - Controller Label

200431-0125

Traffic Control Signals - Double Lid Cable Pit & Termination Pit - Typical Details

200431-0128

Traffic Control Signals - Controller Base Moulding

200431-0129

Traffic Control Signals - 29 Core Termination Box - Detail Drawing

200431-0130

Traffic Control Signals - 51 Core Termination Box - Detail Drawing

200431-0131

Traffic Control Signals - Typical Conduit Layout - For Future Signal Installation

200431-0134

Traffic Control Signals - Conduit, Pit, Post & Loop Layout - Typical 4-Way Intersection

200431-0135

Traffic Control Signals - Conduit Layout

200431-0136

Traffic Control Signals - Conduit Layout Typical -
T Intersection

200431-0137

Traffic Control Signals - Mid Block Pedestrian Signals - Conduit Layout

200431-0138

Traffic Control Signals - Signal Post and Stub Post - Installation Details

200431-0147

Traffic Control Signals - Lantern Aiming Guide

200431-0164

Traffic Control Signals - Vehicle Detector Loops - Installation Details

200431-0167

Traffic Control Signals -  Vehicle Detector Loops - Wiring Guide

200431-0168

Star Wiring System - Typical 3-Way Intersection Conduit Layout

0648-3001

Star Wiring System - Typical 4-Way Intersection Conduit Layout

0648-3002

Star Wiring System - Typical 3-Way Island Intersection Conduit Layout

0648-3003

Star Wiring System - Typical Full Interchange Conduit Layout -
Sheet 1

0648-3004

Star Wiring System - Typical Full Interchange Conduit Layout -
Sheet 2

0648-3005

Traffic Controller - Large Housing - Equipment Layout Star System

0648-3006

Dummy Controller - Equipment Layout Star System

0748-3383

Dummy Controller - Layout and Wiring Details

0748-3384

 

5. REFERENCES

AS 1348  Road and traffic engineering - Glossary of terms - Road design and construction
AS 1742  Manual of uniform traffic control devices
AS 2144  Traffic signal lanterns
AS 2339  Traffic signal posts and attachments
AS 2353  Pedestrian Push Button assemblies
AS 2578.1 Traffic signal controllers - Physical and electrical compatibility
AS 2979  Traffic signal mast arms
AS/NZS 2276  Cables for traffic signal installations - series
AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 6: Intersections, Interchanges and Crossings (AGTM06-14)
AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 9: Traffic Operations (AGTM09-14),
AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 10: Traffic Control and Communications Devices (AGTM10-09),
AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 4: Intersections and Crossings – General (AGRD04-09),
AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections (AGRD04A-10),
AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 6A: Pedestrian and Cyclist Paths (AGRD06A-09),
MRWA   Road and Traffic Engineering Guidelines
MRWA   Specification 712 - Installation of Traffic Signals
MRWA Utility Providers Services Committee - Utility Providers Code Of Practice for Western Australia
MRWA   Glossary of Terms for ITS
WESTERN AUSTRALIAN OFFICE OF ENERGY        WA Electrical Requirements

 

6. APPENDIX A - Guideline for preparing a SIDRA Report

6.1 SIDRA Report Requirements

The designer shall consider listed SIDRA input data when preparing a SIDRA reports for:

6.1.1 Traffic Signals (Intersections at Grade)

    • Lane width
    • Grade
    • Median
    • Approach cruise speed
    • Vehicle movements
    • HV %
    • Peak flow factor
    • Peak flow period
    • Signal coordination
    • Phasing


6.1.2 Roundabout   

    • Lane width
    • Grade
    • Median
    • Island diameter
    • Circulating lanes
    • Approach cruise speed
    • Vehicle volumes
    • HV %
    • Peak flow factor
    • Peak flow period

6.2 Service Required from Consultant

The consultant is required to undertake a SIDRA analysis of the intersection which shall include the following scenarios:

    • SIDRA analysis of the existing intersection layout with supplied traffic volumes for the am and pm peak periods.  The consultant is to ensure that the SIDRA file is calibrated to reflect actual site conditions by undertaking AM and PM site observations on a day that does not include school holidays, public holidays or events (e.g. queue lengths).
    • SIDRA analysis of the proposed intersection layout with supplied traffic volumes for the am and pm peak periods. If the consultant is not required to undertake TRIPS or Paramics modelling or make adjustments to traffic volume generated from TRIPS or Paramics, the Project Manager shall indicate this to the consultant. 
    • The consultant shall also ensure that any  modifications to traffic signals on local government roads do not adversely affect nearby roads under the care of Main Roads.
    • For the proposed modifications to existing sites the consultants shall demonstrate how pedestrian activations are treated in the model.
    • The analysis shall use the yellow times in Table H2 from section 3.4.1 of this document.

 

6.3 Outputs to be provided by Consultant

The designer shall submit a detailed SIDRA report consisting (as a minimum) of the following:

    • Introduction
    • Background
    • Traffic volumes including any adjustments made to modelled volumes noticing in particular the forecast years(s).
    • Analysis Methodology (including details of calibration)
    • Analysis Results Summary, including a table highlighting the following for each movement and the intersection as a whole:(i)  Degree of Saturation   
              (ii)   Average Delay
              (iii)  Level of Service
              (iv)  Queue Length
              (v)   Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Cost (total and rate)
              (vi)  Flow Scale / Design Life Results  based on a 10% increase in traffic volumes.
              (vii) Pedestrian movements
    • Discussion on all observations of the analysis results and outcomes.
    • Conclusions and Recommendations (e.g. length of extensions to turn lanes, etc)
    • A table indicating the proposed cycle length and phase splits that the model suggests to be adopted by SCAT for the  morning peak, and , afternoon peak.
    • Best Level of Service whilst fuel consumption and Emission are not the highest rate compare to other level of services.

6.4 Format of Output Report to be Submitted by Consultant
    • The designer shall supply one original copy (bound) and two copies (unbound) of this report plus an electronic copy.
    • The designer shall also supply the SIDRA input files in electronic format.