Pedestrian Signals

Document No:  D17#734410
 
Revision:  2F
 
Date amended:  18-Sep-2017

Image: orange line.RCN-D13^23151823.GIF 

 

The information below is intended to reflect the preferred practice of Main Roads Western Australia ("Main Roads"). Main Roads reserves the right to update this information at any time without notice. If you have any questions or comments please contact Bita Charehjoo by e-mail or on (08) 9323 4439.

To the extent permitted by law, Main Roads, its employees, agents, authors and contributors are not liable for any loss resulting from any action taken or reliance made by you on the information below or changes to its preferred practice.

Revision Register

 

Ed/Version Number Clause Number Description of Revision Date
1 All Guideline Developed. 01-Jun-2000 
2 All Guideline Revised and Approved. 25-Nov-2006
2A 6 Relinked to Updated Specification 711. 12-Sep-2007
2B Header, 2.2.11 & 4.3 TRIM File No. and Document No. added. New Clauses Added. 11-Jan-2008
2C 1.4 Link to Policy on Cycling and Pedestrian Standards and Guidelines. 01-Jun-2010
2D 2.2.3 Clause amended. 03-Nov-2011
2E 1.3 Updated references to AUSTROADS Guides 01-Aug-2014
​2F2.2.11​​Placement of combined Bicycle/Pedestrian Signals amended.​18-Sep-2017

Table of Content


CHAPTER 2 - PEDESTRIAN SIGNALS

 

1. GENERAL

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Symbolic Walk / Don't Walk aspects (hereafter referred to as Pedestrian Signals) assist pedestrians by indicating the correct time to begin crossing, and warning of the impending change of phase.

A pedestrian crossing phase consists of a green steady walk period a clearance of a flashing red Don't Walk display period and a steady Don't Walk Display.

Pedestrian Signals fall into two categories:

    • Pedestrian Signals at signalised intersections
    • Mid-block Pedestrian Signals - PUFFINs

Pedestrians may misuse or ignore signals, thereby placing themselves at greater risk and, at times, adversely affecting traffic flow. Hence, when designing Pedestrian Signals, a high level of attention to detail is required, particularly in relation to warrants, location and timings.

 

1.2 SCOPE
Comprehensive details of the design of traffic signals in general are provided in Chapter 1 of this document. This chapter (2) describes additional requirements and details for pedestrian signals, and must be read in conjunction with Chapter 1.

 

1.3 DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Pedestrian Signals shall generally be in accordance with Chapter 1 of this document and

    • AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 6
    • AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 9
    • AUSTROADS Guide to Traffic Management Part 10
    • AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 4
    • AUSTROADS Guide to –Road Design Part 4A
    • AUSTROADS Guide to Road Design Part 6A
    • Australian Standard Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (AS1742) Part 10 - Pedestrian control and protection,
    • Australian Standard Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (AS1742) Part 14 - Traffic Signals,
    • Traffic Management of Pedestrian Crossings at Grade,
    • 37/10/01 Guidelines for Assessing Pedestrian Level of Service,
    • 37/22/01 Guidelines on Pedestrian Crossing Slip Lanes
    • Guidelines on Pedestrian Crossing Facilities at Signalised Intersections

1.4 WARRANTS / CRITERIA

Pedestrian Signals shall be provided in accordance with Main Roads Policy on Cycling and Pedestrian Standards and Guidelines.

All new traffic signals, including upgrades, that do not meet the access requirement for pedestrian signals initially, shall be designed with the electrical capacity to enable their subsequent installation as and when the need arises.

 

2. PEDESTRIAN SIGNALS AT SIGNALISED INTERSECTIONS

2.1 GENERAL

Pedestrian Signals at signalised intersections are configured as:

    • Parallel Pedestrian Crossings
    • Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings

 

Parallel Pedestrian Crossings consist of symbolic Walk & Don't Walk signals and audio-tactile push button facilities installed at each end of a marked crossing, configured to allow pedestrians to cross individual legs in parallel with some vehicular traffic.

Parallel Pedestrian Crossings shall be installed at all signalized intersections in accordance with Main Roads warrants and criteria unless Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings are warranted.

Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings consist of symbolic Walk & Don't Walk signals and audio-tactile push button facilities installed with or without individually marked crossings, configured to allow pedestrians to cross all legs of an intersection simultaneously with all vehicular traffic movements stopped under signal control.


2.2 PARALLEL PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS

2.2.1 General

At signalised intersections with Parallel Pedestrian Crossings, conditions may require pedestrians to be protected from vehicular traffic crossing their path. Parallel Pedestrian Crossings may be configured in the following manner:

    • Full parallel (no protection) - vehicular signal green periods and pedestrian walk periods commence at the same time, with vehicles required to give way to pedestrians when turning left or right across their path

    • Partial time protection - vehicular traffic is prevented from crossing the path of pedestrians for an initial period (which is less than the full pedestrian crossing period), subsequent to which vehicles are required to give way to pedestrians when turning left or right across their path.

    • Partial turning Arrow - Protecting vehicles from turning left and/or right across one path for some or all of the period.

    • Full protection - vehicular traffic is prevented from crossing the path of pedestrians for the entire pedestrian crossing period
      The level of protection shall be in accordance with Main Roads warrants and criteria.

 

2.2.2 Full Parallel (No Protection)

Full parallel walk without protection is achieved by starting the pedestrian walk period and vehicle green at the same time. No time separation is provided between the start of pedestrians and vehicular traffic.

Full parallel walk without isolation shall only be implemented with the approval of the Main Roads Manager Traffic and Safety.

 

2.2.3 Partial Protection

Partial Protection is achieved by holding either all turning vehicles via an arrow on a red signal or via the main signal for a predetermined time period at the start of a parallel pedestrian crossing phase. Upon expiration of the period, the red hold signal is removed, releasing turning vehicles. This provides timed separation between the start of the pedestrian crossing phase and the start of the vehicle phase to give pedestrians a head start. 

The time separation period should be determined on a site-by-site basis for all parallel pedestrian movements that are subject to turning traffic, and which do not meet the warrants for full isolation.

When parallel walks with time delay protection are installed (new or upgraded sites). MR-GT-20 "Turning Vehicles Give Way to Pedestrians" signs are to be installed as primary displays on poles nearest to the left or right turn movement where the rule applies. These signs are to be removed after three months.

During the first 12 months following installation or modification the following limitations shall apply:

    • Where turning traffic shares the lane with through traffic, the time separation period shall not be less than 3 seconds nor greater than the duration of the green walk period or 5 seconds whichever is the greater
    • Where turning traffic is controlled by red arrow displays and the traffic lanes are not shared by through traffic, the time separation period shall not be less than 3 seconds but may be greater than the duration of the green walk period or 5 seconds. i.e. the isolation period may be extended beyond the green walk period and into the flashing red don't walk clearance periods. 

 

Caution should be exercised when allocating time separation periods greater than the duration of the green walk period, or 5 seconds, to avoid unnecessary traffic delays and excessive queuing, which may lead to motorists disregarding the red signal.

Following the initial 12-month period, and providing satisfactory safe operation has been achieved, pedestrian isolation periods shall be reviewed and the time separation period may be deleted (set to 0 seconds; i.e. full parallel walk) or reduced to less than 3 seconds.

Any changes involving the removal or adjustment of a time separation period below 3 seconds shall only be carried out with the approval of the Main Roads  Manager Traffic and Safety.

 

2.2.4 Full Protection

Full Protection is achieved by holding all turning vehicles on a red signal for the duration of the full pedestrian crossing phase; i.e. during the walk and clearance periods, where the turning vehicle movement and Pedestrian Crossing together is considered hazardous. This may be for left or right or both turning movements. 

Full protection shall be provided where one or more of the following conditions are met:

    • The sight distance between motorists and pedestrians is less than the stopping distance for typical vehicle speeds near the intersection.

    • The speed of turning traffic exceeds 50km/h.

    • The volumes of turning traffic exceed 300 vehicles per hour.

    • The volumes of turning heavy vehicles exceed 50 vehicles per hour for 4 hours (consecutive or non-consecutive) of a normal weekday.

    • There has been more than one recorded preventable vehicle versus pedestrian fatality in the previous twelve months.

    • More than one lane of turning traffic is permitted across the pedestrian crossing.

    • Significant use by children, the elderly or people with disabilities and there is a request to provide additional isolation from turning vehicles. The warrant needs to be assessed on a case by case for new sites. 

    • Traffic turning left out of a T intersection.

 

Full Protection is also achieved where intersection geometry permits the installation of pedestrian signals that can operate without conflict i.e. crossing one-way roads or signalised slip lanes.

Full isolation under parallel walk could be achieved when corner islands are being introduced.

 

2.2.5 Controlling Turning Traffic

Vehicular traffic is prevented from turning right or left by appropriate signal displays that are configured to remain red during all or part of the pedestrian walk and clearance periods. This can be achieved by:

    • Delaying the start of the vehicle green circular display during the pedestrian walk period or part thereof (for partial protection only). Protection control provided by circular signals is the most effective form of time separation as all vehicular movements are controlled simultaneously, preventing the possibility of vehicles misinterpreting or disregarding other turn control signals (red arrows).    
    • Provision of, or utilisation of existing, right turn or left turn red arrow signals configured to remain red during all or part of the pedestrian crossing phase. The use of red arrow displays for isolation of parallel pedestrian crossings should only be considered where they are installed as part of a left or right turn vehicle phase. The use of red arrow displays solely to provide control of turning traffic during pedestrian crossing phases should be considered only when other forms of control i.e. delayed start, are impractical.

 

2.2.6 Signal Display Layouts

Signal display layouts shall follow the requirements detailed in Chapter 1 of this document.

In addition, green arrow aspects shall not be displayed during any part of an associated parallel pedestrian walk or clearance period. Green arrows may be displayed after the completion of the walk and clearance periods, providing the normal safe operating times can be maintained.

 

2.2.7 Left Slip Lanes

Pedestrian Signals on left slip Lanes can present full or partial control to vehicles. Full control is achieved with 3-aspect red/yellow/green signal faces allowing vehicles to proceed on a green display without further control. The advantage of partial control is that vehicles can proceed without requiring the signals to change from the crossroad phase, thereby maximizing efficiency whilst providing full protection for pedestrians. Partial control is limited to single-lane left slips, as multilane left slips shall not be under STOP or GIVE WAY control.

Pedestrian signals on left slips should be configured as parallel crossings under full protection.

 

2.2.8 T-Junctions

Where practicable, pedestrian signals across the continuing road of a T-junction should be on the left only to avoid conflict with vehicles turning right out of the terminating road (Figure 1).

t-junctions.GIF

Figure 1

2.2.9 Staged Crossings

Staged or staggered Pedestrian Crossings should be avoided where possible, but may be considered where intersection widths make a single crossing impractical. Typically this occurs where the:

    • Crossing distance requires excessive pedestrian timing that is likely to significantly delay traffic;
    • Crossings are separated by wide medians that reduce or nullify the ability of pedestrians to establish themselves on the far side of a crossing before turning traffic is released;
    • Conflicting turning movements may have to be terminated prior to introduction of pedestrian crossing stages on departure legs;
    • Staged crossings should not operate in parallel with an arterial phase as generally each pedestrian demand will require the controller to go to a side street phase before returning to the arterial.

 

2.2.10 Walk Timing

Where parallel pedestrian phases operate during arterial phases, consideration should be given to providing 'walk for green', particularly where there is no vehicle conflict (e.g. across left slip lanes and one-way carriageways).

['Walk for green' denotes the total pedestrian crossing period (walk period plus clearance period) is extended up to the total vehicle period (green plus yellow plus all-red), or beyond (at phase overlaps)].

'Walk for green' should also be considered where:

    • There are phase overlaps (in which case the total pedestrian crossing period can extend into the next vehicle phase).
    • There is a demonstrated need for extended crossing time to assist the elderly or disabled.

 

In built up areas consideration shall be given to the location of Audio tactile devices.

The Design drawing shall provide a table for all timings considered for all pedestrian phases.

 

2.2.11 Placement of combined Bicycle/Pedestrian Lanterns

Where Pedestrian Walk/Don't Walk and Bicycle Cycle/Don't Cycle lanterns are installed alongside each other, bicycle lanterns shall be installed to the right of the pedestrian lantern when facing the crossing.

 

2.3 EXCLUSIVE PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS

2.3.1 General

Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings allow pedestrians to cross all legs of an intersection simultaneously with all vehicular traffic movements stopped under signal control. Intersections with one-way roads may provide parallel pedestrian phases in addition to the exclusive pedestrian phase.
Diagonal crossing may be permitted at exclusive pedestrian crossings under the following conditions:

    • The pedestrian crossing period (walk plus clearance) required for the longest diagonal distance does not cause significant delays to vehicular traffic;
    • There are no legs with a parallel crossing; i.e. diagonal crossing shall not be allowed where different legs of an intersection are subject to different pedestrian crossing periods;


3. MID-BLOCK PEDESTRIAN SIGNALS

3.1 GENERAL

Mid-Block Pedestrian Signals shall be configured as 'partial' Puffin crossings. They shall incorporate all the components of Pelican crossings, with the addition of Above Ground Detectors (AGDs) to detect pedestrians on the crossing. Pedestrian clearance periods can then be automatically extended (within limits) to allow for slow pedestrians, or reduced (when pedestrians clear the crossing early) to minimise vehicle delays.

Where mid-block Pedestrian Signals are part of a SCATS system, variable timings shall be constricted to operate within the SCATS system.

 

4. PEDESTRIAN DETECTION

4.1 PEDESTRIAN PUSH BUTTONS

4.1.1 Location

Pedestrian Push Buttons shall be mounted on traffic signal posts located as close as possible to the pedestrian crossing ramps to provide access to all pedestrians, including the disabled. Where there is no suitable traffic signal post a stub post shall be installed. Pedestrian Push Buttons shall not be installed on median posts except at staged crossings.

The mounting position for push buttons shall be stated on design drawing stating a minimum of 350 mm to maximum of 650mm from the post centre to the edge of pedestrian ramp.

Audible push button posts shall be 3 meters apart to avoid confusion between different pedestrian movements. 

 

4.1.2 Orientation

Parallel Pedestrian Crossings including left slips and combinations:

    • Pedestrian Push Buttons shall be mounted on the side of the traffic signal post, facing the ramp with the tactile arrow orientated towards the direction of travel as shown in the following diagrams.
      Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings including Mid-Block Crossings:
    • Pedestrian Push Buttons shall be mounted facing the footpath with the tactile arrow orientated vertically towards the direction of travel as shown in the following diagrams.
       

parallel-push-button.GIF 

Push Button (audible) is mounted on the side of the signal post facing the pedestrian ramp. The Tactile arrow disc is orientated towards the direction of travel.

Figure 2 - Mounting Requirements for Parallel Push Buttons

 

 

exclusive-push-button-2.GIF 

                                                                    A - Right Angle               

B - Skewed (to avoid
skewed crossing where
possible) 

 

Push Button (audible) is mounted on the side of the signal post facing the footpath. The Tactile arrow disc is orientated to indicate the direction of travel.

Figure 3 - Mounting Requirements for Exclusive Push Buttons

 

 

 

combination-push-buttons-with text.GIF 

For the crossing, which operates in parallel mode in addition to the exclusive mode, the Push Button (audible) is mounted on the side of the signal post facing the pedestrian ramp. The tactile arrow disc is orientated towards the direction of travel.

All other Push Button (audible) is mounted on the signal post facing the footpath. The Tactile arrow discs are orientated to indicate the direction of travel.

Figure 4 - Mounting Requirements for Combination Exclusive/Parallel Push Buttons

 



4.2 AUDIO-TACTILE FACILITIES

Audio-Tactile facilities shall be installed at all locations (i.e. where ramps are adjoined by pedestrian walk paths) where Pedestrian (Walk / Don't Walk) Signals are installed. The audio-tactile features shall operate as follows:

 

4.2.1 At Parallel Pedestrian Crossings

The audio-tactile walk feature shall operate only in conjunction with the individual parallel pedestrian crossing (walk) signal.

 

4.2.2 At Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings

The audio-tactile walk feature shall operate simultaneously with all pedestrian crossing (walk) signals.

 

4.2.3 At combination Exclusive / Parallel Pedestrian Crossings

Where there is a combination of Exclusive and Parallel pedestrian crossings at one site, and a parallel pedestrian phase operates supplementary to an exclusive pedestrian phase, the audio-tactile walk feature shall operate only in conjunction with the exclusive pedestrian walk signal, and shall remain in the locater mode at all other times irrespective of the status of the parallel walk signal.

 

4.3 Above Ground Detectors

Pedestrian movement detectors (Above Ground Detectors or AGDs) shall be installed at all mid-block pedestrian signals to detect the presence of pedestrians on the crossing.

 

5. APPLICABLE DRAWINGS

Main Roads Traffic Signals design guidelines drawings as listed under Chapter 1 of Traffic Signal Design Guidelines.

 

6. EXAMPLE CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS

See Main Roads Specification 711.