The information below is intended to reflect the preferred practice of Main Roads Western Australia ("Main Roads"). Main Roads reserves the right to update this information at any time without notice. If you have any questions or comments please contact Bita Charehjoo by e-mail or on (08) 9323 4439.
To the extent permitted by law, Main Roads, its employees, agents, authors and contributors are not liable for any loss resulting from any action taken or reliance made by you on the information below or changes to its preferred practice.
CHAPTER 2 - PEDESTRIAN SIGNALS
Symbolic Walk / Don't Walk aspects (hereafter referred to as Pedestrian Signals) assist pedestrians by indicating the correct time to begin crossing, and warning of the impending change of phase.
A pedestrian crossing phase consists of a green steady walk period a clearance of a flashing red Don't Walk display period and a steady Don't Walk Display.
Pedestrian Signals fall into two categories:
Pedestrians may misuse or ignore signals, thereby placing themselves at greater risk and, at times, adversely affecting traffic flow. Hence, when designing Pedestrian Signals, a high level of attention to detail is required, particularly in relation to warrants, location and timings.
Pedestrian Signals shall generally be in accordance with Chapter 1 of this document and
Pedestrian Signals shall be provided in accordance with Main Roads Policy on Cycling and Pedestrian Standards and Guidelines.
All new traffic signals, including upgrades, that do not meet the access requirement for pedestrian signals initially, shall be designed with the electrical capacity to enable their subsequent installation as and when the need arises.
Pedestrian Signals at signalised intersections are configured as:
Parallel Pedestrian Crossings consist of symbolic Walk & Don't Walk signals and audio-tactile push button facilities installed at each end of a marked crossing, configured to allow pedestrians to cross individual legs in parallel with some vehicular traffic.
Parallel Pedestrian Crossings shall be installed at all signalized intersections in accordance with Main Roads warrants and criteria unless Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings are warranted.
Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings consist of symbolic Walk & Don't Walk signals and audio-tactile push button facilities installed with or without individually marked crossings, configured to allow pedestrians to cross all legs of an intersection simultaneously with all vehicular traffic movements stopped under signal control.
At signalised intersections with Parallel Pedestrian Crossings, conditions may require pedestrians to be protected from vehicular traffic crossing their path. Parallel Pedestrian Crossings may be configured in the following manner:
2.2.2 Full Parallel (No Protection)
Full parallel walk without protection is achieved by starting the pedestrian walk period and vehicle green at the same time. No time separation is provided between the start of pedestrians and vehicular traffic.
Full parallel walk without isolation shall only be implemented with the approval of the Main Roads Manager Traffic and Safety.
2.2.3 Partial Protection
Partial Protection is achieved by holding either all turning vehicles via an arrow on a red signal or via the main signal for a predetermined time period at the start of a parallel pedestrian crossing phase. Upon expiration of the period, the red hold signal is removed, releasing turning vehicles. This provides timed separation between the start of the pedestrian crossing phase and the start of the vehicle phase to give pedestrians a head start.
The time separation period should be determined on a site-by-site basis for all parallel pedestrian movements that are subject to turning traffic, and which do not meet the warrants for full isolation.
When parallel walks with time delay protection are installed (new or upgraded sites). MR-GT-20 "Turning Vehicles Give Way to Pedestrians" signs are to be installed as primary displays on poles nearest to the left or right turn movement where the rule applies. These signs are to be removed after three months.
During the first 12 months following installation or modification the following limitations shall apply:
Caution should be exercised when allocating time separation periods greater than the duration of the green walk period, or 5 seconds, to avoid unnecessary traffic delays and excessive queuing, which may lead to motorists disregarding the red signal.
Following the initial 12-month period, and providing satisfactory safe operation has been achieved, pedestrian isolation periods shall be reviewed and the time separation period may be deleted (set to 0 seconds; i.e. full parallel walk) or reduced to less than 3 seconds.
Any changes involving the removal or adjustment of a time separation period below 3 seconds shall only be carried out with the approval of the Main Roads Manager Traffic and Safety.
2.2.4 Full Protection
Full Protection is achieved by holding all turning vehicles on a red signal for the duration of the full pedestrian crossing phase; i.e. during the walk and clearance periods, where the turning vehicle movement and Pedestrian Crossing together is considered hazardous. This may be for left or right or both turning movements.
Full protection shall be provided where one or more of the following conditions are met:
Full Protection is also achieved where intersection geometry permits the installation of pedestrian signals that can operate without conflict i.e. crossing one-way roads or signalised slip lanes.
Full isolation under parallel walk could be achieved when corner islands are being introduced.
2.2.5 Controlling Turning Traffic
Vehicular traffic is prevented from turning right or left by appropriate signal displays that are configured to remain red during all or part of the pedestrian walk and clearance periods. This can be achieved by:
2.2.6 Signal Display Layouts
Signal display layouts shall follow the requirements detailed in Chapter 1 of this document.
In addition, green arrow aspects shall not be displayed during any part of an associated parallel pedestrian walk or clearance period. Green arrows may be displayed after the completion of the walk and clearance periods, providing the normal safe operating times can be maintained.
2.2.7 Left Slip Lanes
Pedestrian Signals on left slip Lanes can present full or partial control to vehicles. Full control is achieved with 3-aspect red/yellow/green signal faces allowing vehicles to proceed on a green display without further control. The advantage of partial control is that vehicles can proceed without requiring the signals to change from the crossroad phase, thereby maximizing efficiency whilst providing full protection for pedestrians. Partial control is limited to single-lane left slips, as multilane left slips shall not be under STOP or GIVE WAY control.
Pedestrian signals on left slips should be configured as parallel crossings under full protection.
Where practicable, pedestrian signals across the continuing road of a T-junction should be on the left only to avoid conflict with vehicles turning right out of the terminating road (Figure 1).
2.2.9 Staged Crossings
Staged or staggered Pedestrian Crossings should be avoided where possible, but may be considered where intersection widths make a single crossing impractical. Typically this occurs where the:
2.2.10 Walk Timing
Where parallel pedestrian phases operate during arterial phases, consideration should be given to providing 'walk for green', particularly where there is no vehicle conflict (e.g. across left slip lanes and one-way carriageways).
['Walk for green' denotes the total pedestrian crossing period (walk period plus clearance period) is extended up to the total vehicle period (green plus yellow plus all-red), or beyond (at phase overlaps)].
'Walk for green' should also be considered where:
In built up areas consideration shall be given to the location of Audio tactile devices.
The Design drawing shall provide a table for all timings considered for all pedestrian phases.
2.2.11 Placement of combined Bicycle/Pedestrian Lanterns
Where Pedestrian Walk/Don't Walk and Bicycle Cycle/Don't Cycle lanterns are installed alongside each other, bicycle lanterns shall be installed to the left of the pedestrian lantern when facing the crossing.
Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings allow pedestrians to cross all legs of an intersection simultaneously with all vehicular traffic movements stopped under signal control. Intersections with one-way roads may provide parallel pedestrian phases in addition to the exclusive pedestrian phase. Diagonal crossing may be permitted at exclusive pedestrian crossings under the following conditions:
Mid-Block Pedestrian Signals shall be configured as 'partial' Puffin crossings. They shall incorporate all the components of Pelican crossings, with the addition of Above Ground Detectors (AGDs) to detect pedestrians on the crossing. Pedestrian clearance periods can then be automatically extended (within limits) to allow for slow pedestrians, or reduced (when pedestrians clear the crossing early) to minimise vehicle delays.
Where mid-block Pedestrian Signals are part of a SCATS system, variable timings shall be constricted to operate within the SCATS system.
Pedestrian Push Buttons shall be mounted on traffic signal posts located as close as possible to the pedestrian crossing ramps to provide access to all pedestrians, including the disabled. Where there is no suitable traffic signal post a stub post shall be installed. Pedestrian Push Buttons shall not be installed on median posts except at staged crossings.
The mounting position for push buttons shall be stated on design drawing stating a minimum of 350 mm to maximum of 650mm from the post centre to the edge of pedestrian ramp.
Audible push button posts shall be 3 meters apart to avoid confusion between different pedestrian movements.
Parallel Pedestrian Crossings including left slips and combinations:
Push Button (audible) is mounted on the side of the signal post facing the pedestrian ramp. The Tactile arrow disc is orientated towards the direction of travel.
Figure 2 - Mounting Requirements for Parallel Push Buttons
A - Right Angle
B - Skewed (to avoid skewed crossing wherepossible)
Push Button (audible) is mounted on the side of the signal post facing the footpath. The Tactile arrow disc is orientated to indicate the direction of travel.
Figure 3 - Mounting Requirements for Exclusive Push Buttons
For the crossing, which operates in parallel mode in addition to the exclusive mode, the Push Button (audible) is mounted on the side of the signal post facing the pedestrian ramp. The tactile arrow disc is orientated towards the direction of travel.
All other Push Button (audible) is mounted on the signal post facing the footpath. The Tactile arrow discs are orientated to indicate the direction of travel.
Figure 4 - Mounting Requirements for Combination Exclusive/Parallel Push Buttons
Audio-Tactile facilities shall be installed at all locations (i.e. where ramps are adjoined by pedestrian walk paths) where Pedestrian (Walk / Don't Walk) Signals are installed. The audio-tactile features shall operate as follows:
4.2.1 At Parallel Pedestrian Crossings
The audio-tactile walk feature shall operate only in conjunction with the individual parallel pedestrian crossing (walk) signal.
4.2.2 At Exclusive Pedestrian Crossings
The audio-tactile walk feature shall operate simultaneously with all pedestrian crossing (walk) signals.
4.2.3 At combination Exclusive / Parallel Pedestrian Crossings
Where there is a combination of Exclusive and Parallel pedestrian crossings at one site, and a parallel pedestrian phase operates supplementary to an exclusive pedestrian phase, the audio-tactile walk feature shall operate only in conjunction with the exclusive pedestrian walk signal, and shall remain in the locater mode at all other times irrespective of the status of the parallel walk signal.
Pedestrian movement detectors (Above Ground Detectors or AGDs) shall be installed at all mid-block pedestrian signals to detect the presence of pedestrians on the crossing.