Policy and Application Guidelines for Speed Zoning

Document No:  D14#271254
 
Revision:  7
 
Date amended:  28-Jul-2014

Image: orange line.RCN-D13^23151823.GIF 

 

The information below is intended to reflect the preferred practice of Main Roads Western Australia ("Main Roads"). Main Roads reserves the right to update this information at any time without notice. If you have any questions or comments regarding the Application and Approval Guidelines please contact Traffic Technical Services Manager, Traffic Management Services Branch, Network Operations Directorate by e-mail or call 138 138.

To the extent permitted by law, Main Roads, its employees, agents, authors and contributors are not liable for any loss resulting from any action taken or reliance made by you on the information herein displayed.

Revision Register

 

Ed/Version 
Number
Clause Number Description of Revision Date
1 All Guideline developed 19-Aug-2006
2 All Guideline revised and approved. 27-Sep-2007
3 All Guideline reviewed and revised. Guideline Contact changed.

02-Jun-2010

 4 Document Title "Speed Zoning Application and Approval Guidelines" changed to "Policy and Application Guidelines for Speed Zoning". 20-Feb-2012
 4 Section 1
Policy Statement
"Speed Zoning Policy - Part A" relocated to this document. Separate speed zoning policy no longer used. 20-Feb-2012
 4 Section 4.4
School Zones

Application of school zones extended to include non-school frontage roads that form the land boundary of the school location and that accommodate dedicated student drop-off and pick-up facilities.

Description of days and times of school zones deleted. See Section 4.4.4 below

20-Feb-2012
 4 Section 4.4.1
Length of School Zones
New section heading added 20-Feb-2012
 4 Section 4.4.2
Warrants for Speed Zone Pavement marking

Description of school zone pavement markings consolidated under main heading.

Statements that pavement markings not applicable to electronic school zone signs, removed.

Statements that pavement marking are to be installed on straight roads only, removed.

20-Feb-2012
 4 Section 4.4.3
Electronic School Zone Signs
Section amended to include explanded assessment criteria for prioritising electronic school zone installations. 20-Feb-2012
 4 Section 4.4.4
School Zone Days and Times
New section added, which includes warrants for varying standard school zone times in Kimberley, Pilbara and Gascoyne Regions. 20-Feb-2012
 4 Section 4.7
Default Speed Limit Signing
New section added. 20-Feb-2012
 5 Section 4.1, 4.1.4 & 4.1.4.2 Clause numbers updated. 15-Mar-2012
 6 Table 1
Hierarchy of Speed Limits
 Include Railway Level Crossings within 80 km/h speed limit. 21-May-2014
 6

Section  4.1.4.2
Speed Environment

Apply a maximum 80 km/h posted speed limit on approach to all Railway Level Crossings.  Reference to floodways removed. 21-May-2014
 6 Section 5.7
Railway Level Crossing Signing
Application procedure for 80 km/h posted speed limit on approach to all Railway Level Crossings. 21-May-2014
 7 Section 4.4.3
Use of electronic speed limit signs at school zones
Heading amended from “Electronic School Zone Signs”.  50 km/h local access road, reference to WA Police and LGA, designated heavy vehicle route added to criteria. Endorsement from Children’s Crossing and Road Safety Committee removed. 28-Jul-2014
 7 Section 4.1.4.2
Speed Environment
85th percentile speed and buffer zone comments added. Railway level crossings exempted from speed zoning criteria added. 28-Jul-2014
 7 Section 4.7
Default Speed Limit Signing
Urban distributor roads criteria added. 28-Jul-2014

Table of Content


1. POLICY STATEMENT

Speed zones and all associated speed signing will be provided in accordance with statutory requirements of the Road Traffic Code 2000 taking into consideration road safety, the expectations of drivers, adjacent land use, transport efficiency, information published by Australian Standards and subject to guideline conditions.

 

2. PRELIMINARY

2.1 Definitions

Refer to Main Roads Glossary of Terms guidelines which provide the most commonly used terminology used by Main Roads and unless otherwise indicated in the text of this Guideline:

 

Access Road means a road providing access to abutting properties.

 

AS means Australian Standard.

 

Built Up Area Speed Limit means the 50 km/h speed limit applicable to a built up area as defined in the Road Traffic Code 2000, Part 1 - Preliminary.

 

Default State Speed Limit means the maximum speed limit applicable to a non-speed zoned road as defined in the Road Traffic Code 2000, Part 1 - Preliminary.

 

District Distributor A means a road that carries traffic between industrial, commercial and residential areas and generally connects to Primary Distributor roads.

 

District Distributor B means a road that is a similar function to a District Distributor A road but with reduced capacity due to flow restrictions caused by access to and roadside parking.

 

GVM means Gross Vehicle Mass.

 

LATM means Local Area Traffic Management.

 

Local Distributor means a road that carries local traffic within a land use cell and link District Distributors at the cell boundaries to access roads.

 

Main Roads means Main Roads Western Australia.

 

Non Traffic Route means a road that does not provide a connection between localities.

Note: All forms of Distributor roads are traffic routes.

 

Primary Distributor means a road that provides for major regional and inter-regional traffic movement and carries large volumes of generally fast moving traffic. These roads can be strategic freight routes.

School Frontage Road means any road directly adjacent to any part of a school including playing fields.

Threshold Treatment means a treatment that is placed at a perimeter or entry of a local area to inform motorists that they are entering a slow speed environment.

Vpd means vehicles per day.

85th Percentile Speed means the speed at or below which 85% of all vehicles are observed to travel under free flowing conditions past a nominated point. A guide to the determination of 85th percentile speed is set out in AS 1742.2-2009 Appendix A.

 
2.2 Applicable Roads

This Guideline applies to all public roads in Western Australia.

 

Main Roads monitors all roads with a sign posted speed limit and approves changes to speed zones. For sealed roads subject to the Built-up area 50 km/h speed limit or the State 110 km/h speed limit, Main Roads will initiate a speed limit review or investigation on request from the agency responsible for the road or feedback from the public.

 

Main Roads does not speed zone or install advisory speed signs on unsealed roads, regardless of whether or not the road is a non-traffic route. For these roads the built-up area 50 km/h speed limit, any other applied area speed limit, the State 110 km/h speed limit, or vehicle class default speed limit is applicable, subject to the driver driving at a speed appropriate to the road conditions.

 

3. ENQUIRIES FOR INFORMATION ON SPEED LIMITS

3.1 General Speed Limits

All enquiries should be to the Road Services Officer (Speed Zoning) for the Metropolitan Region and the relevant Customer Services Manager in the Regional Office. Contact details are provided on the website www.mainroads.wa.gov.au under Our Role & Regions.

 
3.2 Speed Limits Changes

Changes to speed limits are provided on the website www.mainroads.wa.gov.au under Road & Traffic Information > Speed Zoning Changes. Details are placed on the website two (2) weeks prior to the change and retained on the website for four (4) weeks after the speed limit has changed.

 
3.3 Roadwork Speed Limits

All enquiries should be to the relevant Project Manager for the roadwork in the Metropolitan or Regional Office.

Guidelines for temporary speed limit signs for roadwork are given on the website www.mainroads.wa.gov.au under Road & Traffic Information > Traffic Management > Roadworks.

 
3.4 Special Events Speed Limits

All enquiries should be to the Traffic Management Co-ordinator in the Metropolitan Region and the relevant Customer Services Manager in the Regional Office.

Guidelines for temporary speed limit signs for events are given on the website www.mainroads.wa.gov.au under Road & Traffic Information / Traffic Management / Events.

 
 

4. CONDITIONS FOR NEW AND AMENDED SPEED LIMITS

4.1 Primary Determination of Speed Limit

The primary determination of the speed limit for a particular length of road shall be by road function in accordance with the hierarchy of speed limits listed in Table 1 below. This shall be used in place of AS 1742.4-2008 Table 2.1.

Subject to requirements for the minimum length of a speed zone (see Clause 4.1.5), the limit corresponding to that function and application which best meets the description given under 'key features' shall be adopted unless an adjustment up or down can be justified in accordance with Clause 4.1.4.

 

Table 1 - Hierarchy of Speed Limits

Speed Limit​ ​Road Function Typical Application​ ​Key features
​10 1

Shared Zone

Pedestrian mall

Confined area where movement of pedestrians and cyclists has priority over motor vehicles.

​20 1

Off-street areas

Car parks, access driveways

Confined areas where pedestrians and cyclists intermingle with motor vehicles.

30 1

Local

Recreational area, car park

Confined areas where pedestrians and cyclists intermingle with motor vehicles.

40 2

Local /
Distributor

Residential / Commercial streets or areas

Shopping precincts. Provision of Local Area Traffic Management devices must be provided to physically control speeds to posted limit.

40 3

Local / Distributor

School Zone

On non-primary distributor routes subject to speed zones up to 70 km/h.

50 4

Local

Default built up area speed limit

Residential, commercial roads that are not primarily distributor routes. It may also be applied on highways through rural townsites.

60 4

Distributor

 

Speed limit for most undivided district and primary distributor roads in built-up areas with direct access from abutting development.

60 3

Distributor

School Zone

On non-primary distributor routes subject to speed zones of 80 and 90 km/h.

70 4

Distributor

 

Higher standard urban roads, generally divided roads having provision to safely store turning or crossing vehicles but with some or full direct access to the road from abutting development. May also be applied to undivided roads having low levels of direct access from abutting development.

80 4

Distributor

 

Higher standard urban roads, generally divided roads having provision to safely store turning or crossing vehicles and minimal access from abutting development directly to the main carriageways. May also be applied to undivided roads having very low levels of direct access from abutting development.

Maximum speed limit through traffic signals, railway level crossings, roundabouts and single lane bridges.

Major rural roads through small settlements with some abutting development.

90 4

Distributor

 

Limited application on outer urban highways.

Major rural roads through small settlements with some abutting development.

100 4

Distributor

 

High standard urban freeways and highways.

110 4

Distributor

 

Default speed limit for roads in non built-up areas. Mainly used for speed zoning rural freeways and highways.

1 Refer to Clause 4.1.1

2 Refer to Clause 4.1.2

3 Refer to Clause 4.4

4 Refer to Clause 4.1.3

 
4.1.1 Linear Speed Zones less than 40 km/h

These zones are provided only in exceptional circumstances, for example, the part of Fraser Ave, Kings Park near the War Memorial. These are assessed individually.

 
4.1.2 Linear Speed Zones of 40 km/h

The road section shall be fully contained within a recognisable and dedicated tourist, recreation, conservation, shopping, commercial or industrial area / precinct / reserve subject to the following:

    • Two-way single carriageway roads shall have a seal width of at least 5.0 metres;
    • Traffic volumes shall exceed 100 vpd on a typical weekday;
    • The start and end of the road section should have a threshold treatment;
    • Minimum length of the speed zone shall be 400 metres;
    • Mid-block speed-reducing devices shall be provided where the length exceeds 400 metres or where devices are necessary to create a speed environment consistent with the speed zone; and
    • The 85th percentile speed for motor vehicles on existing roads, or expected on new roads, shall not be greater than 50 km/h or less than 30 km/h.

 

4.1.3 Linear Speed Zones of 50 km/h or Higher

Freeway exit and entry ramps shall be in accordance with Figures 3 and 4 in the Technical Guidelines. These shall be used in place of Figures 3.1 and 3.2 in AS 1742.2-2009.

Linear speed zones 50 km/h or higher shall be in accordance with AS 1742.4-2008 Section 2.3, with the following variations:


4.1.3.1 Seal Width

Two-way single carriageway roads less than 5.5 metres wide are not speed zoned.

Dual carriageway roads with one traffic lane in each direction shall have lane widths of at least 3.0 metres, exclusive of parking and bicycle lanes.

 
4.1.4 Permitted Adjustments to Speed Limits

The following specifies the permitted adjustments to the speed limits determined in accordance with Clause 4.1.

For speed limits determined as 50 km/h or less, no adjustment shall be allowed.

At higher speed limits the adjustment shall be limited to +10 km/h unless:

    • A reassessment of the application and key features can be justified by reference to Clauses 4.1.4.1, 4.1.4.2, and 4.1.4.3 or

    • The 85th percentile speed is more than 10 km/h different from the determined speed

The posted speed limit shall always be equal to or lower than the 85th percentile speed.


4.1.4.1. Speed Environment - Roadside Development

The speed limits recommended for various roadside development categories in AS 1742.4-2008 Appendix A Section A2 relevant to AS 1742.4-2008 Section 2.3.3 (b) (i) shall not be used and, subject to the road length meeting the minimum speed zone length for the appropriate speed limit, the following shall be used instead:

  • Fully Built-up

Description - Residential, business or industrial development extending along at least 90% of the road frontage on both sides of the road. The development may include such facilities as commercial, industrial and playing fields.

Speed Limit - The appropriate speed limit is 50 km/h but for urban arterial roads (District Distributor B and higher) 60 km/h is generally appropriate for road sections with 4 lane - single carriageway, 70 km/h for 4 lane dual carriageway roads with some property access and 80 km/h for 4 lane dual carriageway with minimal or no direct property access. Urban arterial roads in rural town sites with retail and commercial strip development have above average pedestrian crossing activity and thus the appropriate speed limit is 50 km/h.

  • Partially Built-up

Description - Residential, business or industrial development ranging from 25% to 90% of the road frontage on both sides of the road. This is typical of the fringes to major urban centres and rural town sites.

Speed limit - The appropriate speed limit is 80 km/h but 60 or 70 km/h may be appropriate if there is extensive vehicular or pedestrian activity on the road.

  • Sparsely Built-up

Description - Similar to partially built-up but the development extends along less than 25% of the road frontage or occurs on one side of the road only. This is typical of very small rural town sites.

Speed Limit - The appropriate speed limit is 80 km/h but 90 or 100 km/h may also be appropriate if there is little vehicular or pedestrian activity on the road.

  • Farmland

Description - Not more than 30 residences per kilometre (total of the two sides) generally set well back from the road and no other development.

Speed Limit - The appropriate speed limit is 100 or 110 km/h.

  • Undeveloped

Description - No development on either side of the road except for isolated houses set well back from the road.

Speed Limit - The appropriate speed limit is 100 or 110 km/h.

Where development is markedly different on the two sides of a road and there is little movement across the road, a speed limit higher than that for the more developed side may be considered; or for divided roads, a different speed limit for each direction of travel.

 

4.1.4.2. Speed Environment - Road Characteristics

AS 1742.4-2008 Appendix A Section A3 shall be used except for sub-section A3.4 - Road Hazards, which is replaced with the following:

Speed limits should not be reduced for isolated road hazards, such as un-signalised intersections and isolated curves.  Features such as these should be treated with the appropriate warning and regulatory signs. However, where several hazards occur in close proximity to each other over a section of road 3 km or more, then a lower speed limit than that indicated by roadside development in Section 4.1.4.1 may be appropriate.

Traffic Signals, Roundabouts, Railway Level Crossings and Single Lane Bridges are speed zoned as follows:

    • Where the approach road is speed zoned at 90 km/h and above, the approach shall be a speed zoned at 80 km/h or based on the 85th percentile speed, whichever is the lesser value, with a length not less than 300 metres before the intervening feature.  Where there is a reduction in the speed limit of more than 30 km/h, a buffer zone may be required as prescribed in Section 4.1.7.
    • Due to the potential for high severity head-on and head-on evasion crashes at single lane bridges, associated traffic control devices should be provided in addition to normal speed zoning devices.
    • In addition to the sealed road width requirement in Section 4.1.3.1, railway level crossings shall have a minimum of 400 metres length of seal on both approaches.
    • On divided carriageways, if offset speed zones are appropriate, the length of the speed zone should be reduced to 100 metres on the departure side of the feature.

Railway level crossings under passive Stop control or located ≤ 300 metres from an intersection on a terminating road are exempt from speed zoning.  Existing posted speed limit to be retained.

Road sections which have, or are proposed to have, a Winding Road sign (W1-5) and Next ..km sign (W8-17-1) with a length of 3 km or more, shall be speed zoned, based on general operating speed. For the application of these signs, refer to AS1742.2-2009, Clause 4.4.7.5.


4.1.4.3. Road Crash History

In addition to the requirements of AS 1742.4-2008 Section 2.3.3 (c) the following matters shall be considered:

  • A high incidence of crashes along a section of road may indicate a road hazard (not apparent in consideration of Speed Environment - Road Characteristics) and/or poor traffic conditions. If the road hazard and/or poor traffic conditions cannot be treated or treated in a reasonable period of time, or the reason for the crashes is not apparent, then a speed limit lower than the otherwise appropriate speed limit should be considered.
 
4.1.5 Minimum Length

 The desirable minimum lengths of speed zones are specified in Table 2. This shall be used in place of AS 1742.4-2008 Table 2.2.

 

                           Table 2 - Minimum Lengths of Speed Zones 

​Speed Limit (Km/h) ​Minimum Length of Speed Zone (km)
30
0.3
40 ​0.4
​40 (School zone) ​0.2
​50 ​0.5
60 ​0.6
​60 (School Zone) ​0.3
​70 ​0.7
​80 ​0.8
​90 ​0.9
​100 ​2.0
​110 ​4.0
​Buffer Zone
0​.3 Minimum
0.5 Preferred
 
4.1.6 Location of Speed Zone Change

Except on divided carriageways where offset speed zones may be used, it is desirable that speed zone changes occur well away from major intersections to avoid distractions and to allow drivers to adapt to the lower speed limit before reaching the intersection. A typical distance of 300 metres is desirable where appropriate conditions exist. However, where the speed zone is lower on the other side of the intersection, the speed zone change should be installed as near as possible to the intersection to discourage continuation of the higher travel speeds through the intersection.

 
4.1.7 Buffer Zones

AS 1742.4-2008 Section 2.3.5 Buffer Zones shall not be used and is replaced with the following:

Where there is a reduction or increase in the speed limit of more than 30 km/h, a buffer zone of intermediate speed value shall be provided; except for the following situations:

    • On exit ramps at interchanges with lengths insufficient to provide buffer zones of at least 300 metres;
    • At approaches and departures to Shared Zones;
    • On entry ramps at interchanges; and
    • On dual carriageway roads when the speed limit increases.

Dual carriageway roads with offset speed limits shall not have any median openings over the length of the offset speed zone within the buffer zone.

The length of the buffer zone should generally be 500 metres and not less than 300 metres. Buffer zones can be longer than 500 metres to include substandard vertical or horizontal alignment or hazards.

A Speed Limit Ahead sign (G9-79) shall only be used in place of a buffer speed limit where there is insufficient length to install buffer speed limit signs.

 
4.1.8 Warrants for Linear Speed Limit Pavement Marking

Linear Speed Zone pavement markings, comprising white numerals, may be provided as follows:-

Within the Metropolitan Region

    • For a speed limit decrease at the end of a significant length of road with 3 through lanes and a decrease from 100 km/h or higher;
    • The location of the pavement marking is on a straight section of road.

 

Outside the Metropolitan Region

    • For a speed limit decrease at the end of a significant length of road with a speed limit of 100 km/h or higher;
    • The location of the pavement marking is on a straight section of road.

 

4.2 Area Speed Zones
4.2.1 Area Speed Zones for 30 km/h and 40 km/h

4.2.1.1. Common conditions for 30 and 40 km/h Area Speed Zones

All roads shall be fully contained within a shopping, commercial, industrial or similar area,recognisable and dedicated tourist, recreation, conservation precinct or reserve and subject to the following:

    • The traffic volume on all roads shall be less than 5,000 vpd;
    • The area shall have a higher than normal pedestrian activity level, (e.g. Northbridge entertainment/restaurant area);
    • All roads within the area shall meet the definition of a 'built-up area' as defined in the Road Traffic Code 2000;
    • The proposed area speed zones to be signed shall have a clearly defined boundary. Primary distributor roads, district distributor roads and other major traffic routes are to retain a higher speed limit;
    • The boundaries of the area, precinct or reserve should have a threshold treatment to clearly define the area;
    • Generally all roads within the area shall be local access or local distributor roads in a functional road hierarchy; and
    • A reduction in operating speeds of not more than 30 km/h shall apply to all approaches to the speed zone

 

There is no arbitrary restriction on the maximum or minimum size of an area to which an area speed zone may be applied. Generally, most area speed zones will naturally be restricted by the size of the shopping, commercial, industrial or similar area, recognisable and dedicated tourist, recreation, conservation precinct or reserve. The adopted boundary of the zone and the associated speed limit signing should appear logical and clear to drivers.

Where a Local Government boundary passes through an area proposed for an area speed zone, close consultation and coordination will be necessary so that the zone is implemented within both municipalities simultaneously. Failure by Local Governments to agree on the proposed area speed limit shall preclude the implementation of the proposed local area speed zone.


4.2.1.2. Additional Conditions for 30 km/h Area Speed Zones

The existing vehicle 85th percentile speeds on all roads within the area shall not be greater than 40 km/h and not less than 20 km/h for all hours of a typical day.


4.2.1.3. Additional Conditions for 40 km/h Area Speed Zones

The existing vehicle 85th percentile speeds on all roads within the area shall not be greater than 50 km/h and not less than 30 km/h for all hours of a typical day. If the 85th percentile speed exceeds 50 km/h then effective speed reducing devices shall be installed.

Effective speed reducing devices may include Stop and Give Way signing, roundabouts, slow points and speed humps in conformance with the following guidelines and standards in order of precedence as below:

    • Main Roads Local Area Traffic Management. See www.mainroads.wa.gov.au under Standards > Roads and Traffic Engineering > Traffic Management > Local Area Traffic Management;
    • Austroads Guide to Traffic Management Part 8, Local Area Traffic Management (2008); and
    • AS 1742.13-1991, Local Area Traffic Management.

 

4.2.2 Area Speed Zones for 50 km/h, 60 km/h and 70 km/h

The proposed local area speed zone shall have a clearly defined boundary.

Acceptable features for the boundary are primary distributor roads, district distributor roads, local distributor roads, other major traffic routes that are to retain a higher speed limit, townsite development boundaries and physical boundaries such as rivers, lakes, railway lines and protected bushland.

The boundaries of the area, precinct or reserve should have a threshold treatment to clearly define the area.

Primary distributor roads, district distributor roads and other major traffic routes should be excluded from the area speed zone and are to retain a higher speed limit. 

The adopted boundary of the zone and the associated speed limit signing should appear logical and clear to drivers.

Generally all roads within the area shall be local access or local distributor roads in a functional road hierarchy.

The length of existing gravel roads within the proposed area speed zone must not exceed 15% of the total length of roads. The length of existing substandard seal width roads within the proposed area speed zone must not exceed 15% of the total length of roads. The combined total length of gravel and substandard seal roads must not exceed 20% of the total length of roads within the speed zone area.

There is no arbitrary restriction on the maximum or minimum size of an area to which an area speed zone may be applied. Generally, most area speed zones will naturally be restricted by the boundaries, but the size of these areas should desirably be in the range of 8 to 12 square kilometres.

Where a Local Government boundary passes through an area proposed for an area speed zone, close consultation and coordination will be necessary so that the zone is implemented within both municipalities simultaneously. Failure by Local Governments to agree on the need for lowering the speed limit shall preclude the implementation of the proposed local area speed zone.

 
4.3 Heavy Vehicle Zones

The definitions for heavy vehicle, heavy vehicle speed zone and heavy vehicle speed zone sign are given in the Road Traffic Code 2000.

The normal speed zone restriction for heavy vehicles is 40 km/h but this may be varied depending upon the particular situation. These are assessed individually depending on the circumstances eg structure, road geometry.

The conditions applicable to a heavy vehicle speed zone on a long steep descent shall be in accordance with the requirements in AS 1742.2-2009 Section 4.9.4 Figure 4.25 for Steep Descent and Long Steep Descent, except the descent shall extend for a minimum length of 1000 metres for grades equal to or greater than 10%.

 
4.4 School Zones

The School Zone shall comply with the definition of a School Zone as given in the Road Traffic Code 2000.

The school associated with the School Zone shall be pre-primary, primary or secondary school (a pre-primary must operate 5 days a week and the same time as schools to be eligible).

The road on which the School Zone applies shall have frontage access to the school.  Otherwise the road shall form a road boundary for the land area on which the school is located and shall accommodate on-road facilities dedicated to the drop-off and pick-up of students at school start and finish times, e.g. parking zones specifically for parent vehicles, bus zones for children travelling to and from school by bus, etc.     

School Zone speed limits shall be as follows:

    • 40 km/h School Zone for adjoining speed zones of 50, 60 and 70 km/h; and
    • 60 km/h School Zone for adjoining speed zones of 80 and 90 km/h.

The roads within a School Zone shall not include:

    • Freeways;
    • Control of Access Highways;
    • Primary Distributor roads with posted speed limits greater than 50 km/h;
    • Distributor Roads where grade separated children / pedestrian crossing facilities have been provided;
    • Six-lane roads;
    • Roads within an area speed zone equal or less than the proposed school zone;
    • Two lane roads with the carriageway width greater than 10 metres. (Kerb extensions, medians or pedestrian refuge islands should be considered to reduce the width to less than 10 metres);
    • Roads where direct access is restricted for children via physical barriers such as fencing, walls, embankments etc.

 

School Zones are not desirable but may be eligible for consideration on:

    • Single carriageway road with a seal width less than 5.5 metres wide;
    • Four-lane and two-lane undivided roads carrying over 15,000 vpd;
    • Four-lane and two-lane divided roads carrying over 20,000 vpd; and
    • Four-lane roads with clearways.
 
4.4.1 Length of School Zones

School Zone lengths should extend 50 metres beyond the frontages of the school and to achieve the following minimum lengths:

    • 200 metres - where the School Zone speed limit is 40 km/h; and
    • 300 metres - where the School Zone speed limit is 60 km/h.

Where possible, the section of School Zone on the main school frontage should be positioned such that the point at which most students enter and leave the school is approximately at the centre of that section of School Zone.

The proposed School Zone sections shall be extended to include children's crossings, zebra crossings, pelican crossings or pedestrian refuges in the immediate proximity of the school.

Where two schools are nearby and they both independently satisfy the selection criteria, one continuous School Zone serving both schools shall be applied if the separation distance between separate School Zones is not greater than 300 metres.

 
4.4.2 Warrants for School Zone Pavement Marking

School Zone pavement markings, comprising a yellow rectangle with black numerals, shall conform to the layouts detailed in the Technical Guidelines.


4.4.2.1. 40 km/h School Zones

School Zone pavement markings shall be provided at entry points to a 40 km/h School Zone where:

    • The road has a speed limit greater than the Built Up Area 50 km/h default speed limit outside of the School Zone times, or
    • The road is Distributor road status and has an annual average daily traffic volume greater than 5,000 vehicles per day (applicable to Perth Metropolitan Region, City of Bunbury and City of Mandurah),
    • The road is Distributor road status (applicable in all other rural locations),
    • The location of the pavement marking is outside vehicle swept turning paths at intersections.


4.4.2.2. 60km/h School Zones

School Zone pavement markings shall be provided at all entry points to a 60 km/h School Zone where the location of the pavement marking is outside vehicle swept turning paths at intersections.

 
4.4.3 Use of Electronic Speed Limit Signs at School Zones

The use of Electronic Speed Limit Signs in combination with school zone supplementary top hat plate (MR-RS-17) and school times sign panel (MR-RS-11 or 12) at School Zones shall only be considered on the main school frontage road where the school has direct access to the road or carriageway.  Provision of these school zone signs is subject to budgetary constraints, with funds allocated based on the road’s physical and operational characteristics in the following descending order of priority:

    • Four lane single carriageway - 70 km/h speed limit or greater,
    • Four lane single carriageway - 60 km/h speed limit,
    • Two lane single carriageway - 70 km/h speed limit or greater,
    • Two lane single carriageway - 60 km/h speed limit,
    • Four lane carriageway with median strip or pedestrian refuge island - 70 km/h speed limit or greater,
    • Four lane carriageway with median strip or pedestrian refuge island - 60 km/h speed limit,
    • Two lane carriageway with median strip or pedestrian refuge island - 70 km/h speed limit or greater,
    • Two lane carriageway with median strip or pedestrian refuge island - 60 km/h speed limit,
    • 50 km/h Distributor roads,
    • 50 km/h Local Access roads.
       

Sites that can be given a higher priority include those which have one or more of the following:

    • A history of pedestrian casualty crashes,
    • Existing vehicle speed data provided by the WA Police Service, Local Government Authority etc which demonstrates that the operating speed (85th percentile) is 10 km/h or greater than the posted speed over the full 1.5 hour School Zone period,
    • A School Zone located on a designated Restricted Access Vehicle (RAV) route, and / or a designated heavy vehicle route.
      .
4.4.4 Days and Times of School Zones

4.4.4.1. School Days

School Zones are effective on "School days" which are those days excluding weekends and local public holidays, within school terms set by the Department of Education and published on its website via the following link:

http://det.wa.edu.au/education/termdates


4.4.4.2 School Zone Times

The times of operation shown on School Zone signs shall be 7.30 AM to 9.00 AM and 2.30 PM to 4.00 PM. 

Variations to these times shall be permitted in the Gascoyne, Pilbara and Kimberley Regions only, where school operating hours can vary markedly from normal school start and finish times applying in the rest of the State.  Such variations shall be subject to the following conditions:

    • The operating time variations shall apply to all school zones throughout the Region,
    • The length of morning and afternoon school zone times shall be 1.5 hours each,
    • School zone times shall be in minimum half hour increments only,
    • The variations shall take effect simultaneously at the commencement of a new school year.

Electronic School Zone Signs shall only be activated during the times shown on School Zone signs.

 
4.5 Shared Zones

Shared Zones shall be located within a central business district, a dedicated tourist area or a heritage area.  These zones are provided only in exceptional circumstances, for example, the Hay St and Murray St Mall, Perth.  These are assessed individually based subject to the following:

    • Traffic volumes shall be less than 300 vpd after the shared zone is installed,
    • Pedestrian movements shall predominate over vehicular movements,
    • The Shared Zone shall meet the definition of a Shared Zone as given in the Road Traffic Code 2000,
    • The Shared Zone may consist of a network of roads or a single road,
    • The Shared Zone may include laneways,
    • The speed limit is 10 km/h and other limits are not permitted,
    • The driving environment for motorised vehicles shall be such that vehicle-operating speeds are generally no more than 10km/h,
    • Raised kerbs shall be removed to provide visual cues to drivers that pedestrians have right of way,
    • The surface texture of the shared zone shall be different from the surrounding road network,
    • Entrance and exit widths shall be narrowed so that there is a physical entry/exit to the zone,
    • Each road shall have a trafficable width of at least 2.5 metres for one-way traffic and 4.5 metres for two-way traffic,
    • There shall be minimal turning and intersecting motorised vehicular traffic,
    • The roads shall have significant physical interruption to vehicular traffic by the use of bollards, parallel parking bays, plants and landscaped areas
    • There shall be minimal need for reversing of motorised traffic in entering and departing parking bays.  Angle and 90o kerbside parking are not desirable,
    • Parking spaces and loading zones, where provided, shall be located adjacent to the trafficable path and clearly signed and marked,
    • The shared zone shall be an integral part of an agreed traffic management plan for the area that was developed with community consultation,
    • Service and Emergency vehicles shall be able to use all roads,
    • All roads within the area shall meet the definition of a built-up area and have street lighting to Category P as defined in AS1158.3.1-2005.

Speed reduction devices should be installed at a spacing of approximately 40 metres and these should be staggered on opposite sides of the carriageway to create a weaving alignment through the shared zone.  Devices should include planting areas to contain the area visually.  Bollards with reflectors may be used to delineate the shape of the roadway on the approach side of landscaping.

 
4.6 Advisory Speed Signing

Advisory speed signing shall be limited to horizontal and vertical curves (including LATM devices) on sealed highways, main roads and other speed zoned roads that have a safe operating speed less than the speed limit.  These are to be assessed for signing with curve warning and advisory speed signs, in accordance with AS 1742.2-2009, Section 4.4 unless otherwise directed in this guideline.

Where there is a series of more than two closely spaced horizontal curves, some or all of which are substandard, the symbolic Winding Road sign (W1-5) shall be used at the beginning of the series of curves.  The winding road sign used shall indicate the direction of the first substandard curve and the advisory speed sign shall indicate the advisory speed of the slowest curve.  However, if the series of curves extends over a distance of one kilometre or more and the slowest curve is more than 10 km/h slower than the others, the slowest curve is to be signed separately.

Clause 3.3 of AS1742.4-2008 shall apply with respect to the conflict between speed limits and advisory speed signs.

If the crash level on a section of speed zoned road with advisory speed signing becomes greater than the network average for that type of road, then that road section may be speed zoned at a lower value.

Advisory Speed signs shall not be used in conjunction with Crossroad (W2-1), T-junction (W2-3 and W2-14), Roundabout (W2-7), Side Road Junction (W2-4, W2-8 and W2-13) or Modified Intersection Warning (W9 series) signs, where a driver may be required to give way to other vehicles.

 
4.7 Default Speed Limit Signing

Speed Zone signs shall not be used in conjunction with default speed limits, i.e. "110" speed zone signs for the Default State Speed Limit and "50" speed zone signs for the Built-Up Area Speed Limit, shall not be installed. 

 The only exception shall be for situations where

    • a speed zone greater than 50 km/h terminates on a section of continuing road within a built up area, in which case 50 km/h speed limit signs shall be installed for motorists leaving the higher speed limit section.
    • Urban distributor roads that have built-up land use on one side and undeveloped land use on the other side of which the operating speed (85th percentile) is 10 km/h or greater than the Built-Up Area Speed Limit.
 

5. APPLICATIONS FOR NEW AND AMENDED SPEED ZONES  

5.1 General Speed Zones

Applications for general speed zones and/or changes to existing speed zones should be addressed to the Traffic Services Co-ordinator for the Metropolitan Region and the Customer Services Manager in the Regional Office.

The applicant should provide the following information:

    • Applicants Name, Postal Address, E-mail Address and Telephone Number
    • Road Name and Section (linked to a physical landmark eg intersection),
    • Outline of reasons for seeking a change to the existing speed limit or speed zone,
    • Supporting reasons for a proposed speed limit.
 
5.2 Area Speed Zones

Applications shall only be made by the Local Government with responsibility for the area in which the Area Speed Zone is proposed.

All applications should be addressed to the Traffic Services Co-ordinator for the Metropolitan Region and the Customer Services Manager in the Regional Office.

The application shall include:

    • A scaled map showing the boundary of the proposed local area speed zone.
    • A list of all roads in the proposed area, the traffic volumes and the 85th percentile speed of traffic on these streets on an hourly basis.
    • A list of all roads that will require installation of speed control calming devices, where appropriate.
    • A list of all roads with substandard seal widths (less than 5.5 metres), and deteriorating surfaces.
    • Drawings to show the location and details of all proposed and existing speed control devices, proposed and existing threshold treatments, proposed local area speed limit signs and the locations of conducted speed surveys.
    • A brief description of a monitoring program.  The monitoring program shall include at least local community attitudes and vehicle speeds.
    • The date on which the area speed zone is planned to come into force (i.e. after completion of Main Roads approvals and Council completion of roadwork if any).
    • A commitment by Council to measure speeds for the road sections with new speed control devices and to provide additional devices if the 85th percentile speed exceeds the area speed limit by more than 10 km/h.
    • A summary of consultation with the local community, police, emergency services and public transport authorities.
 
5.3 Heavy Vehicle Zones

All applications should be addressed to the Traffic Services Co-ordinator for the Metropolitan Region and the Customer Services Manager in the Regional Office.

The applicant should provide the following information:

    • Applicants Name, Postal Address, E-mail Address and Telephone Number
    • Road Name and Section (linked to a physical landmark eg intersection),
    • Outline of reasons for seeking a heavy vehicle speed zone,
    • Supporting reasons for a proposed speed limit.
 
5.4 School Zones

Applications shall only be made by the Headmaster / Principal or Parents & Citizens Association of the school or initiated by the Road Services Officer (Speed Zoning).

All applications should be addressed to the Traffic Services Co-ordinator for the Metropolitan Region, or the Customer Services Manager in the Regional Office.

The applicant should provide the following information:

    • Applicants Name, Postal Address, E-mail Address and Telephone Number
    • A sketch map showing the school location with road names, buildings, adjacent playing fields, parking and access points,
    • For new schools, the anticipated starting date for the school opening.
 
5.5 Shared Zones

Applications shall only be made by the Local Government Authority with responsibility for the area in which the Shared Zone is proposed.

All applications should be addressed to the Traffic Services Co-ordinator for the Metropolitan Region and the Customer Services Manager in the Regional Office.

The application shall include:

    • A scaled map showing the proposed shared zone boundaries.  The proposed shared zone shall have clear boundaries with other roads and features,
    • The traffic volumes and the 85th percentile speed of traffic on an hourly basis,
    • Drawings to show the location and details of all existing and proposed speed control, traffic signing, traffic calming devices, threshold treatments and the locations of conducted speed surveys,
    • A brief description of a monitoring program.  The monitoring program shall include at least local community attitudes and vehicle speeds,
    • A commitment by Council to measure speeds for the road sections with new speed control devices and to provide additional devices if the 85th percentile speed exceeds the shared zone limit,
    • A summary of consultation with the local community, Police Service, emergency services and public transport authorities,
    • The proposed commencement date for the shared zone.
 
5.6 Advisory Speed Limit Signing

For Local Government roads outside of the Perth Metropolitan Boundary, applications for advisory speed limit signing should be forwarded to the relevant Local Government.  For highways and main roads, applications should be addressed to the Customer Services Manager in the Regional Office.

For all roads within the Perth Metropolitan Boundary, applications should be addressed to the Traffic Services Co-ordinator for the Metropolitan Region.

 
5.7 Railway Level Crossing 80 km/h Speed Limit Signing
 
Applications shall only be made by the Road authority with responsibility for the area in which the Railway level crossing speed zone is proposed.
 
All applications should be addressed to the Metropolitan Traffic Services Manager for the Metropolitan Region OR the Regional Manager in the relevant Regional Office.
 
The application shall include:
    • A detailed plan at an appropriate scale showing the proposed speed limit signage and appropriate dimensions.  The plan must show existing road / rail infrastructure and signage (i.e. seal width, seal length, existing speed limits and signage etc).
    • Written confirmation from the rail owner that they support the speed reduction and will make any required adjustments to level crossing infrastructure (such as Advanced Active Warning Signage).
 

6. APPROVAL

All proposed new and amended speed zones shall be approved by the Executive Director Road Network Services or the Executive Director Infrastructure Delivery prior to implementation.