Keep left, Keep right, Stop, Give Way and Divisional Marker Signs in WA

Document No:  D12#177764
 
Revision:  2B
 
Date amended:  20-Jan-2015

Image: orange line.RCN-D13^23151823.GIF 

The information below is intended to reflect the preferred practice of Main Roads Western Australia ("Main Roads"). Main Roads reserves the right to update this information at any time without notice. If you have any questions or comments please contact Ron Koorengevel by e-mail or on (08) 9323 4704.

To the extent permitted by law, Main Roads, its employees, agents, authors and contributors are not liable for any loss resulting from any action taken or reliance made by you on the information herein displayed.

Revision Register

 

Ed/Version Number Clause Number Description of Revision Date
 1 All Guideline Developed. 21-Jan-2010
 1A Header Contact person changed. 29-Sep-2011
 2 All Guideline Revised and Approved. 30-Jun-2012
 2A 2.2 Dot Point 4 at section 2.2. updated. 02-Oct-2013
​2B​2.1, 3.4

​Section 2.1 - Policy on Give Way Sings Approaching Narrow Roads and One Lane Bridges added.

Section 3.4 - Dot point 3 added.

​20-Jan-2015

Table of Content




1. PURPOSE OF DOCUMENT

The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for the most common uses of the following regulatory control:
    • STOP
    • GIVE WAY
    • KEEP LEFT
    • Divisional Markers

For application of pavement marking please refer to Main Roads Pavement Marking Drawings.

The document may be used by Traffic Sector Officers in reviewing Signs and pavement marking drawings as well as in conducting on site audits to determine whether signs are missing.

2. STOP AND GIVE WAY SIGNS

2.1 General Application

All intersections with four or more legs shall be controlled by STOP or GIVE Way control, unless controlled by a roundabout or traffic signals. 

Opposing legs shall have the same type of control; i.e. even if STOP is warranted on only one leg, both legs shall have STOP control. The only exception in this regard is where it is necessary, because the main route is a turning movement, to install a STOP or GIVE WAY sign on one approach only. 

Combinations of STOP and GIVE WAY may be used side-by-side where slip lanes are involved and movements are separated by an island. However, this would only occur in particular situations, eg where sight distance is clear to one side allowing safe turning.

T Junctions are automatically controlled by legislation requiring the terminating road to give way to the through road, and therefore do not generally require GIVE WAY signing.  However, if STOP signs are warranted then they shall be installed. GIVE WAY control may be installed at T-junctions where the priority, or the safe position to stop the vehicle, is unclear from the terminating road approach.

GIVE WAY signs may also be used at narrow roads and one-way bridges. Refer to "Give Way Signs Approaching Narrow Roads and One Lane Bridges" on the Main Roads Intranet iRoads,  under Traffic Management.

For the use of GIVE WAY signs at LATM devices, such as one-lane slow-points, refer to Guideline Drawing Nos. 200331-130, 200331-131 and 200331-133.

STOP control shall only be applied where sight distances are limited from the minor road.  Crash history and/or traffic calming are not warrants for STOP control. These require resolution by other means.  AS1742.2 2009 clause 2.5.4 sets out the requirements for STOP control. Inappropriate use of STOP signs leads to their disregard.

Where STOP or GIVE WAY signs are required they shall be installed in combination with STOP or GIVE WAY lines except on unsealed pavements, or where the sealed approach to the intersection is less than 2 m. It is recommended that the sealed approach to an intersection be a minimum of 15 m to accommodate a dividing line leading to the STOP or GIVE WAY line. Where the minimum 2 m of sealed approach is not achieved only the regulatory sign is required.


2.2 Installation of GIVE WAY Lines Without GIVE WAY Signs

GIVE WAY lines MAY be installed without installing a corresponding GIVE WAY sign under the following circumstances:

    • At the terminating legs of T junctions, entering a District Distributor B (DDB) or lower classified road.
    • Left-turn slip roads into the stem of a T junction.
    • Left-turn slip roads from the terminating road to the through road, except where the terminating road is subject to STOP or signal control.
    • At the terminating legs of T-junctions where the through road has a Bicycle Lane, except where there is a physical feature such as a flush concrete kerb, brick paving, etc, that clearly distinguishes the edge of the through road for motorists approaching on the terminating leg.

 

GIVE WAY lines MUST be installed in conjunction with signs on terminating roads:

    • Where a change of priority of a continuing road occurs.
    • On high speed rural road approaches.
           - with > 100 km/h speed limit on the through road, or
           - with > 100 vehicles per day, on the terminating road or
           - where the terminating road is a tourist route.

2.3 Intersection of Gravel and Surfaced Roads

These guidelines are to be applied at locations where an unsealed carriageway and a sealed carriageway meet. The layouts of intersections vary considerably. In consultation with Regional Managers the intersection layouts shown in Figure 1 are considered to represent the majority of sealed/unsealed carriageway intersections that exist in Western Australia.

 

              common intersection layouts.GIF

       

                                    FIGURE 1 : Common Intersection Layouts

 

With the exception of layouts 2 & 4 the remainder are classified as T intersections under Road Traffic Code regulations. However due to potential confusion, special treatments are necessary to ensure these T intersections conform to definitions and regulations that apply (excepting layout 6). Those treatments include regulatory signs, warning signs and, in some cases road markings. Intersection layouts 2 & 4 are those, where in the absence of regulatory signs, normal give-way-to-the-right rules would apply. 

 

Intersection Treatments

 

The treatments recommended in the following are the minimum that shall be applied as a consequence of the absence of the previous regulation which required traffic on unsealed carriageways to give way to traffic on sealed carriageways. Intersections that are assessed as hazardous for other reasons should be treated as necessary using accepted traffic management practices including the application of signing standards according to AS 1742. This includes the need for warning signs on any of the approaches, or hazard markers, etc.

 

 Treatment of Intersection Types 1 and 7

A GIVE WAY or STOP control shall be installed on unsealed road approaches of Intersection Types 1 and 7. Where the sealed road is at least 5.5 m wide, a dividing line should be applied through the curve. An edge line may be marked on both sides of the road if there is a marked dividing line and the sealed width is > 6.0m. If there is a high percentage of heavy vehicle traffic (> 20%) an edge line may be marked on both sides of the road if there is a marked dividing line and the sealed width is > 6.4m.


Treatment of Intersection Type 2

GIVE WAY or STOP control, as appropriate, shall be installed on both unsealed road approaches of Intersection Type 2. 


Treatment of Intersection Type 3

GIVE WAY or STOP control, as appropriate, may be required to be installed on the unsealed road approach of Intersection Type 3, depending on whether it is sufficiently obvious that the unsealed road is the terminating road or not. If any doubt exists then as a minimum, a GIVE WAY sign is required to be installed. In addition, where the sealed road is at least 5.5 m wide and centre lining does not already exist, a dividing line should be applied through the curve.


Treatment of Intersection Type 4

Unsealed carriageways may be an indication of low vehicle usage and, if this is so, it is acceptable and appropriate that regulatory signs be placed on the unsealed road approaches of Intersection Type 4. Regulations require traffic travelling on the unsealed road approaching a STOP sign or GIVE WAY sign to give way to all vehicular traffic. This includes traffic travelling on the intersecting carriageway as well as traffic turning right in front of vehicles on the STOP sign or GIVE WAY sign controlled approach. Whether GIVE WAY or STOP signs are appropriate is a matter of assessment of sight distance (in accordance with existing criteria). 


Treatment of Intersection Type 5

GIVE WAY or STOP control, as appropriate shall be installed on the unsealed road approaches of Intersection Type 5.


Treatment of Intersection Type 6

In respect to Intersection Type 6, normal give-way requirements apply and therefore no signs or special line marking is required. However, GIVE WAY or STOP control may be installed where deemed necessary based on other criteria.



2.4 Position and Number of STOP or GIVE WAY Signs
    • STOP or GIVE WAY signs should be located as close as possible to the corresponding line.  At intersections with large radii, it may be necessary to position the sign closer to the start of the radius to give better sight distance. The STOP or GIVE WAY sign should not be located further than 15m from the corresponding line, measured longitudinally along the road (refer to Figure 2.1).

position of stop or give way sign in relation to line.GIF
 
FIGURE 2.1 : Position of STOP or GIVE WAY Sign in Relation to Line

 

    • If a traffic island exists on a single lane approach to be signed, the STOP or GIVE WAY sign should be installed on the traffic island for greater conspicuousness, except that if the terminating road curves to the right, the STOP or GIVE WAY sign should be installed on the left verge (see Figure 2.2).

 

   position of stop giveway sign - single lane approach.GIF


FIGURE 2.2 : Position of STOP or GIVE WAY Sign on a Single Lane Approach
with a Traffic Island

 

    • If there are two approach lanes present on the controlled leg, or if there is a crash history resulting from drivers failing to see the control sign, the existing signs should be doubled up (refer to Figure 2.3).

 

   position of stop giveway sign - multi lane approach.GIF

 
                                             Note:  Control signs are doubled up

FIGURE 2.3 : Position of STOP / GIVE WAY Sign on a Multi-Lane Approach



2.5 STOP or GIVE WAY Signs at Non-signalised Intersections with Slip Lanes
    • At intersections with slip lanes where the terminating road is subject to GIVE WAY control, no GIVE WAY signs are required on the slip lane of the terminating leg (refer to Figure 2.4).
    • At intersections with slip lanes where the terminating road is subject to STOP control, GIVE WAY signs shall be installed on the slip lane of the terminating leg (refer to Figure 2.5).

 

giveway sign - terminating Leg.GIF 


FIGURE 2.4 : GIVE WAY Signs on a Terminating Leg with a Slip Lane. 

 

 

stop and giveway sign - terminating Leg.GIF 


FIGURE 2.5 : STOP and GIVE WAY Signs on a Terminating Leg with a Slip Lane. 


 

2.6 GIVE WAY Signs at Signalised Intersections with Slip Lanes
    • At signalised intersections with slip lanes where the terminating slip lane is subject to GIVE WAY control, GIVE WAY signs shall be installed on all slip lanes subject to GIVE WAY control (refer to Figure 2.6).

 

giveway signs - signalised intersection.GIF 


FIGURE 2.6 : GIVE WAY Signs on Slip Lanes Subject to GIVE WAY Control
at a Signalised Intersection 



3. KEEP LEFT SIGNS

3.1 Traffic Islands Preceded by a Dividing Line

KEEP LEFT signs shall be used on all median traffic islands or Local Area Traffic Management (LATM) devices (e.g. blister islands), which are preceded by a dividing line, except that if the traffic island is < 25m long and is installed with a traffic control device (STOP / GIVE WAY / ROUNDABOUT sign or TRAFFIC SIGNALS) at the far end of the median traffic island, then a KEEP LEFT sign is not required (refer to Figures 3.1 to 3.3). For examples of KEEP LEFT signs used in conjunction with LATM devices, refer to the LATM guideline drawings.
 

median traffic island with no regulatory control.GIF
 

FIGURE 3.1 : Median Traffic Island with no Regulatory Control    
 
 
 
  

median traffic island - less than 25m long - traffic control device installed on the traffic island.GIF
 
* "Regulatory Control" includes the R1-3 (Roundabout) sign as well as Traffic Signals

 

FIGURE 3.2 : Median Traffic Island smaller-equal.GIF 25m Long with a Traffic Control Device
Installed on the Traffic Island
 

 

 

 

 

median traffic island - more than 25m long with a regulatory control device.GIF 

* "Regulatory Control" includes the R1-3 (Roundabout) sign as well as Traffic Signals

FIGURE 3.3 : Median Traffic Island > 25m Long with a Regulatory Control Device Installed on the Traffic Island



3.2 Traffic Islands Preceded by a Painted Island

KEEP LEFT signs are not required on raised median islands preceded by painted islands unless the raised island is hidden by a horizontal or crest vertical curve (refer to Figure 3.4) and the Approach Sight Distance is restricted. If the Approach Sight Distance, measured from driver's eye height to the road surface (1.1m to 0.0m) is less than that given in Table 1, suitably corrected for grade as per Table 2, then a KEEP LEFT sign is required. Refer to Appendix 1 for tables.

traffic islands preceded by painted islands.GIF 


FIGURE 3.4 : Traffic Islands Preceded by Painted Islands



3.3 Traffic Islands at Intersections (Terminating Roadway)

KEEP LEFT signs should be installed at the front of a median traffic island located on the terminating leg of an intersection under the following circumstances:

    • If there is no island on the main through-road and the nose of the island on the terminating road is set back 6m or more from the kerb-line or edge of the through road (refer to Figure 3.5)
    • If there is an island on the main through-road and the nose of the island on the terminating road is set back 10m or more from the kerb-line or edge of the through road (refer to Figure 3.6)

 

no island on main roadway - more than 6m from edge of through road.GIF 

 

 
Note 1: KEEP LEFT sign on the nose of the island to be mounted on the reverse side of  regulatory signpost, if installed.

 

Note 2: Refer to Figures 3.2 and 3.3 to see whether KEEP LEFT sign is required in this position.

FIGURE 3.5 : No Island on Main Roadway - Nose of Traffic Island on
Terminating Road > 6m from Edge of Through Road

 

 

island on main roadway more than 10m from edge of through road.GIF 

Note 1: KEEP LEFT sign to be mounted on the reverse side of regulatory signpost, if installed.
Note 2: Refer to Figures 3.2 and 3.3 to see whether KEEP LEFT sign is required in this position.

FIGURE 3.6 : Island on Main Roadway - Nose of Traffic Island on
Terminating Road > 10m from Edge of Through Road

 

KEEP LEFT signs may be installed at the front of a median traffic island located on the terminating leg of an intersection under the following circumstances:

    • If there is no island on the main through-road and the nose of the island on the terminating road is set back < 6m from the kerb-line or edge of the through road (refer to Figure 3.7)
    • If there is an island on the main through-road and the nose of the island on the terminating road is set back < 10m from the kerb-line or edge of the through road (refer to Figure 3.8)

 

no island on main roadway less than 6m from Edge of through road.GIF
 
FIGURE 3.7 : No Island on Main Roadway - Nose of Traffic Island on
Terminating Road < 6m from Edge of Through Road
 

 

 island on main roadway less than 10m from edge of through road.GIF
FIGURE 3.8 : Island on Main Roadway - Nose of Traffic Island on
Terminating Road < 10m from Edge of Through Road



3.4 Traffic / Median Islands at Intersections (Through Roadway)

KEEP LEFT signs should be installed at the front of a median island located on the through roadway of an intersection under the following circumstances:

    • If there is no island on the terminating leg of the intersection, but there is a dividing line (refer to Figure 3.9).
    • If the road layout of the main through road changes from a single to a dual carriageway and the second carriageway is constructed on the far side of the terminating leg (refer to Figure 3.10).
    • If the crown of the road or the width of the median prevents you from seeing the second carriageway.

A KEEP LEFT sign may also be installed at the front of a median island located on the through roadway of an intersection if the road layout is unclear and there is a danger of drivers turning right from the side road into the incorrect carriageway.

 

no island on terminating roadway.GIF
 
Note 1: KEEP LEFT sign should be angled towards the traffic on the terminating leg and should not obstruct sight distance
for right-turning traffic from the major roadway into the terminating leg.

FIGURE 3.9 : No Island on Terminating Roadway

 

 

construction of a second carriageway on the far side of the terminating leg.GIF
 

Note 1: KEEP LEFT sign should be angled towards the traffic on the terminating leg and should not obstruct
           sight distance for right-turning traffic from the major roadway into the terminating leg.

FIGURE 3.10 : Construction of a Second Carriageway on
the far side of the Terminating Leg



3.5 KEEP LEFT Signs Mounted on Traffic Signal Poles

KEEP LEFT signs shall not be located on traffic signal poles in the positions discussed in Sections 3.1 to 3.4, unless an exclusive lane exists (eg. bus lane) and it is necessary to direct general traffic to one side of the island where the traffic signal pole is located and traffic in the exclusive lane to the other side. In these circumstances, the "KEEP LEFT" sign shall be supplemented with a suitable supplementary plate stating those vehicles to which the "KEEP LEFT" sign does not apply.


 

Image: keep left sign ^26amp^3B bus excepted.RCN-D10^2311701.GIF 

FIGURE 3.11 : Example of a KEEP LEFT Sign that may be used in Conjunction
with Traffic Signals and an Exclusive Use Lane



3.6 Installation Position of KEEP LEFT Signs
    • Where KEEP LEFT Signs are installed with a preceding dividing line (Section 3.1) or with a preceding painted median island (Section 3.2), the distance from the nose of the island (or LATM device) should be 4.5m.
    • Where KEEP LEFT signs are installed at the front of a median traffic island located on the terminating leg of an intersection (Section 3.3), the distance from the nose of the island to the KEEP LEFT sign should be > 2.5m without a pedestrian gap.
    • Where a pedestrian gap exists the distance from the nose of the island to the KEEP LEFT sign can be < 2.5m, unless the KEEP LEFT sign is mounted on the reverse side of a pole with a regulatory sign, in which case the distance from the nose of the island should be > 2.5m.
    • Where KEEP LEFT signs are installed at the front of a median traffic island located on the through roadway (Section 3.4), the distance from the nose of the island to the KEEP LEFT sign should be > 2.5m.


4. DIVISIONAL MARKERS

Divisional markers shall be installed on all traffic islands in the following circumstances:

    • On multi-lane roadways where traffic is required to pass to either side of a pedestrian refuge island, where the angle of deflection is small.
    • On multi-lane roadways where one lane is obliged to turn left or right (lane drop) and a traffic island is installed to assist in the channelisation of the lane drop.  (Note, this differs from a left or right-turn slip lane, where the added lane is required to turn left or right).
    • At intersections with left-turn traffic islands, which do not have a deceleration lane (refer to Figure 4.1).
    • At kerbed seagull islands, as per Figure 4.2.


 

divisional markers at left turn slip lanes and traffic islands.GIF 

FIGURE 4.1 : Divisional Markers at Left-turn Slip Lanes and Traffic Islands

 

5. SIGNS AT KERBED SEAGULL ISLANDS

Signs required at kerbed seagull islands shall be installed as per Figure 4.2.

signs at kerbed seagull islands.GIF 


FIGURE 4.2 : Signs at Kerbed Seagull Islands

 

APPENDIX 1

TABLES
Design Speed​ ​ ​
Approach sight distance for a car​ ​
​ ​RT = 2.0 s ​ ​RT = 2.5 s
ASD (m)
​K
ASD (m)
K

40

40

7.2

-

-

50

55

13.8

-

-

60

73

24.0

-

-

70

92

38.9

-

-

80

114

59.5

 

 

90

139

87.3

151

104

100

165

124

179

146

110

193

171

209

198

120

224

229

241

264

Source: Austroads Guide to Road Design - Unsignalised and signalised intersections Part 4A Table 3.1

TABLE 1 : Minimum Approach Sight Distance

 

 

 

Design speed
(major road)
 
(km/h)
​ ​ ​ ​Correction (m)
​ ​ ​ ​Upgrade ​ ​ ​ ​Downgrade
​2% ​4% ​6% ​8% ​2% ​4% ​6% ​8%

40

-1

-2

-2

-3

1

2

3

5

50

-1

-3

-4

-5

2

3

5

8

60

-2

-4

-6

-7

2

5

8

11

70

-3

-5

-8

-10

3

7

11

15

80

-4

-7

-10

-13

4

9

14

20

90

-5

-9

-13

-16

5

11

18

25

100

-6

-11

-16

-20

6

14

22

31

110

-7

-13

-19

-24

8

17

26

38

120

-8

-16

-22

-29

9

20

31

45

130

-10

-18

-26

-34

11

23

37

53

 

Source: Austroads Guide to Road Design - Unsignalised and signalised intersections Part 4A Table 3.3

TABLE 2 : Grade Corrections to Approach Sight Distance