Driveways

Document No:  D12#57413
 
Revision:  4B
 
Date amended:  29-Jun-2015

Image: orange line.RCN-D13^23151823.GIF 

 

The information below is intended to reflect the preferred practice of Main Roads Western Australia ("Main Roads"). Main Roads reserves the right to update this information at any time without notice. If you have any questions or comments regarding the Policy Statement or Application and Approval Guidelines please contact Albert Symcox by e-mail or on (08) 9323 4586. If you have any questions or comments regarding the Technical Guidelines please contact Dave Nicholls by e-mail or on (08) 9323 4325.

To the extent permitted by law, Main Roads, its employees, agents, authors and contributors are not liable for any loss resulting from any action taken or reliance made by you on the information herein displayed.

 

Revision Register

 

Ed/Version Number Clause Number Description of Revision Date
1 All Guideline Developed 17-Jun-2002
2 All Guideline Rivised and Approved 26-May-2005
2A All Policy Statement and Guidelines Combined 25-Nov-2005
2B 3.1 & 3.2.1 Drawings relinked 17-May-2006
2C 2.4.3 Provide Link to 'Application to Undertake Works' 04-Jul-2006
2D 2.4.3 Relink to 'Application to Undertake Works' in New Website. 15-Oct-2008
2E Header Telephone Number of Contact changed. 21-Jan-2009
3 All References to Austroads documents updated. Contact updated. 09-Dec-2011
4 All

Policy and Application for Driveways added to existing document.

Definitions and Terminology now section 2.

Technical Guidelines now section 5.

27-Feb-2012
​4A​Header​Contact updated.​13-May-2015
​4B​2.1​Drawing 9831-6281 amended.​29-Jun-2015

Table of Content


1. Policy Statement

Driveway access to roads managed by Main Roads will be controlled for the safety and efficiency of the network and all road users.
 

2. Preliminary

2.1 Definitions

The definitions provided below are for terms not contained in or have a different meaning for this Guideline to the definitions given in Main Roads Glossary of Terms.

AS means Australian Standards.

Control of Access Road means that section of a road intended for use by prescribed traffic without avoidable hindrance and has been declared to be subject to control of access.  A Control of Access road may be entered or departed from at specified places only.

Crossover means that part of a driveway that is located within the road reserve.

Crossover Width means the width of the crossover measured at the start of the turnout radius, at right angles to the centre line of the driveway.

Driveway(s) is defined in Australian Standard 1348 Road and Traffic Engineering.

Freeway means a road that is built to the freeway standard and has all intersections grade separated, and is inclusive of road sections at either end terminating at the nearest of the following:

    • an at-grade intersection,
    • change from dual carriageway to single carriageway, or
    • a distance of 5 km.

Internal Driveway means the section of a driveway that is not within the road reserve

Local road means a road under the control of a Local Government.

Main Roads means Main Roads Western Australia.

MRS means Metropolitan Region Scheme

RTC 2000 means Road Traffic Code 2000.

Rural Area is where the urban criteria are not met. Main Roads Guideline Drawing 9831-6281 highlights typical rural driveway details.

State Road means a highway or main road under the control of Main Roads Western Australia and includes national highways.

Traffic sign means a sign as recognised in the Australian Standards or Main Roads Signs Index.

Urban Area as defined under the Road Traffic Code 2000.  Generally a built up area is where five or more driveways occur along any 500 metres of a road.

 

Fig 1 - Definitions D12#57627.GIF 

Figure 1 - Definitions

 
 
2.2 Purpose
The purpose of this document is to detail Main Roads requirements for the safe use and location of driveways on applicable roads.
 
2.3 Powers and Responsibilities
 
 
 

The powers and responsibilities of the Commissioner of Main Roads are contained in the Main Roads Act Sections 15, 16(1), 20, 28A and 28B; and the Local Government Act, Uniform Local Provisions, Regulations 12(1), 13, 14(1), 14(4) and 14(7).

Restrictions on the property owners are contained in the Main Roads Act Section 15A and the Local Government Act, Uniform Local Provisions, Regulations 12(2), 14 (3), 14(5), 14 (6), 17 and 19.

Restrictions on the powers and responsibilities of Local Government are contained in the Local Government Act, Uniform Local Provisions, Regulation 14(2).

 
2.4 Funding

The Commissioner of Main Roads, under the power of the Main Roads Act, Section 16(1)(b) requires the property owner and Local Government to finance the driveway and associated works in accordance with Local Government Act, Uniform Local Provisions, Regulation 15; except for existing driveways that are affected by roadworks, in which case Main Roads will provide reasonable access in accordance with Main Roads Act Sections 20.

Associated works include, but are not limited to, modification to bus shelters, power poles, water valves, footpaths, pedestrian ramps and provision of auxiliary lanes and traffic signals.

 

3. APPLICATION

 

3.1 Applicable Routes

This guideline applies to routes designated as State roads.

Driveways to a Freeway or road with declared Control of Access shall NOT be permitted unless otherwise approved (eg Bus train interchange).

Maps of State roads can be located on the Main Roads website under State Road Network Mapping System.

For access to roads not under Main Roads control the relevant Local Government should be contacted.  However if a driveway located within 50 m of a traffic signal controlled intersection, then a copy of the driveway application shall be submitted to the relevant Main Roads Regional Manager.

3.2 Existing Driveways
 

3.2.1 Non-Conforming Driveways

Existing driveways which do not meet the requirements of this Guideline, may be retained, but shall be reassessed in the event of a redevelopment of the site.
 

3.2.2 Redundant Driveways

Driveways made redundant through redevelopment shall be removed and the road reserve reinstated at the property owner's cost and to the satisfaction of the Regional Manager.
 

3.2.3 Unapproved Driveways

Main Roads may require unapproved driveways to be removed and the road reserve reinstated at the property owner's cost and to the satisfaction of the Regional Manager.
 

3.2.4 Driveway Modifications

Modifications to existing driveways shall comply with the requirements for new driveways.
 
 
3.3 New Driveways
 

3.3.1 Number of Driveways

Generally, a property will only be permitted one driveway onto a State road.  More than one driveway may be permitted in the following situations:

    • Large generators/attractors of vehicles that are not corner locations, eg regional shopping centres, service stations.
    • Lots with frontage in excess of 1 km.


Where two driveways are permitted, their design should ensure they will both operate safely.

 

3.3.2 Internal Turn Around Facility

A new driveway shall incorporate an internal turn around facility or area that enables vehicles to turn around and exit the driveway in a forward direction onto a State road.

A modified driveway should include provision of a turn around facility.

 

3.3.3 Location

Driveways shall be carefully located to avoid the creation of a hazard to the through movement of traffic, pedestrian and cyclists, and to minimise damage to road verge vegetation.

The driveway and its turnout radii shall be contained within the frontage of the lot defined by extension of the lot's side boundaries to the road pavement.

Driveways should be located as far as practical from intersections to minimise points of conflict and confusion and to improve safety.  Locating driveways opposite the terminating road of a T-junction or opposite median openings for legal U-turn purposes should be avoided.  Driveways should be located a minimum distance from intersections as shown in AS 2890.1 Parking Facilities - Part 1: Off Street Parking at Figure 3.1.  Driveways to parking facilities should also to meet the requirements of AS 2890.1 Section 3.2.3.

Driveways near roundabouts shall not be located within the roundabout area nor within 25 m of the roundabout entrances or exits, and shall be located as far as practical from the roundabout.

Logging tracks, quarry tracks, haul roads and similar temporary access points shall be treated in the same way as driveways.  Where driveways are to be used by large combination vehicles the turn-out radii shall be increased to meet the required design turning template of the larger vehicles.

Driveways should be as near to 90o to the road centreline as site conditions will permit.  In special circumstances this may be reduced to an absolute minimum of 70o to the road centre line.

 

3.3.4 Locations Near Traffic Signals

Driveways near traffic signal controlled intersections shall not be located within the area defined by extension of the signal stop lines to the road boundaries, and shall be located as far as practical from the signals and preferably not adjacent to auxiliary lanes.

At signalised intersections on all roads, driveways shall be placed as far from the signals as practical.  On corner lots the driveway shall preferably be on the minor road and designed and installed as shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2.

 

Fig 2.1 - Driveway Upstream of Traffic Signals D12#57628.GIF 

Figure 2.1 - Driveway Upstream of Traffic Signals

 

Fig 2.2 - Driveway Downstream of Traffic Signals D12#57629.GIF 

Figure 2.2 - Driveway Downstream of Traffic Signals

 

3.3.5 Service Station Specific Conditions

Service stations on a corner lot may have one driveway up to 11 .0 m wide to a State road and another to the minor road.  Those not on a corner may have two driveways, each up to 11.0 m wide.

As a general rule, median openings solely to service station driveways shall not be provided.

 

3.3.6 Fast Food Outlets Specific Conditions

Only one driveway to a State road shall be permitted.

Driveways shall not be located:

    • Within 50m upstream of a traffic signal stop line or roundabout hold line or within an auxiliary lane,
    • Within a merge taper,
    • Within 20m downstream of the tangent point of the minor road left turn.
 

3.3.7 Auxiliary Lanes

A left and/or right turn auxiliary lane shall be provided at property owner's cost in accordance with:

    • The warrants for turn lanes as described in Austroads' Guide to Road Design Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections, Section 4.8, or
    • When the presence of heavy or slow turning vehicles may impact the performance or safety of the road network.

The whole left turn auxiliary lane shall be located within the property frontage, unless written approval from affected property owners is provided.

Upon opening to traffic, auxiliary lanes shall become the responsibility of Main Roads.

 

3.3.8 Median Treatments

For divided roads, generally no median openings shall be permitted.

For undivided roads, if the traffic volume in the lane from which a right turn could occur exceeds 400 vehicles per hour for 4 hours of a typical weekday, then a solid median to prevent the right turn shall be provided at cost to the property owner.

For undivided roads, when the road is upgraded to dual carriageway, no median openings shall be permitted to allow right turn movements into or from the property.

 
3.4 Temporary Property Access During Construction

Temporary property access during construction shall generally comply with the requirements for Section 3.3. of this guideline.  Relaxation of the requirements shall be at the discretion of the Regional Manager.

The application shall include a date or duration for removal of the temporary access and re-instatement of the road carriageway, median strip and roadside.

 
3.5 Development Applications
In the Perth Metropolitan Area, if a general development application to the Department of Planning includes an existing, new, modified, temporary or redundant driveway to a State road, then the parts of the general development application involving such driveways, should be forwarded to Main Roads at the same time that the general development application is submitted to the Department of Planning.
 

3.5.1 Redevelopments

Main Roads will normally request the Development Approval Authority to impose a condition for redevelopment, that the lot shall not be permitted access to a State road if:

    • The development is for a residential dwelling and the lot has, or could have, driveway access to a Local Government road, a service road or right of way.
    • The development is for a business and the lot has, or could have, driveway access to a Local government road, a service road or adjacent land owners agree to interconnection of parking areas and/or internal private roads on the lots.
 
3.6 Costs

The property owner shall be responsible for the cost:

    • To design and construct the driveways and associated works,
    • To maintain the driveways.

The property owner shall not be responsible for the cost to maintain associated works.

 

4. APPROVAL

4.1 Application

The property owner shall submit an application to the relevant Regional Manager for all new, temporary, modified driveways and driveway removal proposals; as well as the retention of existing driveways in development proposals.

The application shall contain:

    • A completed Main Roads Application Form
    • A location plan
    • A scaled drawing or site plan for a distance of approximately 100 m each side of the driveway or to the nearest driveway (whichever is the least).  The site plan shall show the plan layout for any existing and proposed driveways, associated works, traffic control devices and road reservation and lot boundaries.
    • Additional information as required to show that the proposed driveway and associated works meet Main Roads requirements.
    • A copy of the State Government and the relevant Local Government planning / building approval conditions.
    • Copies of letters of agreement by other authorities to undertake relocation of their buildings and or plant affected by the driveway proposal.  Each agreement shall include a statement, signed by all of the parties to the agreement, as to who is pay for the relocation/s.  Typical relocations involve bus shelters, water valves, electricity power poles, footpaths, pedestrian ramps, traffic signs etc.
    • A timeframe for re-instatement of the road reserve disturbed by the driveway work and associated works.

Main Roads shall advise the applicant within 21 days of the outcome of the Application or the timeframe to complete the assessment and approvals.

 

4.1.1 Main Roads Application Form

A completed Main Roads Application Form must be forwarded to Main Roads at least 8 weeks before construction is due to commence.

Application forms may be obtained direct from:

There are two types of application forms:

    • Low complexity works - Typically a stand-alone driveway without any additional roadworks.
    • Complex works - Typically a driveway requiring associated works, such as road carriageway widening, auxiliary lanes, traffic signals etc.
 

4.1.2 Traffic Impact and Management Reports

For all developments generating traffic movements greater than 100 vehicles per day (or 20 semi-trailer or longer vehicles per day) the property owner shall submit a Traffic Impact and Management Report to the Regional Manager.

The Report shall include:

    • A brief description of the development in terms of proposed land use, trips generated and required heavy vehicle access,
    • A brief description of the existing operational conditions of the road network in the immediate vicinity of the development,
    • Analysis of the operation of the accesses to the development,
    • Analysis of the operation of the first intersection on either side of the access(es) to the development,
    • Professional opinion on, and analysis of, the expected traffic impact based on observations during the expected critical peak hour, and
    • Details of existing and proposed roads, signals, signs and pavement markings.

The Report should also investigate impacts on:

    • Road safety, crash history and emergency services,
    • All aspects of the adjacent road infrastructure that are affected by the development, and
    • Road infrastructure within 1.5 km of the development, where more than an extra 100 trips per hour are generated.

It is recommended that to confirm specific requirements and the expected scope of a Traffic Impact and Management Report, contact should be made with the Regional Manager in rural areas and the Manager Traffic Operations and Services in the metropolitan area.

 
4.2 Approval

Approval for a driveway shall detail:

    • Number of driveways,
    • Location of driveways, 
    • Maximum crossover width,
    • Extent of associated works (e.g. traffic signals, signs, auxiliary turn lanes, median islands, entry statements, fences and walls).

Approval for a driveway shall be subject to:

    • The provision of an internal turn-around facility,
    • The driveway and associated works being designed to Main Roads requirements and constructed to Local Government requirements.
 
4.3 Approval Conditions

4.3.1 New and Modified Driveways

Approval by the Regional Manager of the design and proposed construction of the crossover and associated works must be obtained prior to commencement of any work in the road reserve.

Approval by the Regional Manager of the completed works must be obtained prior to opening the driveway and associated works for general use.

 

5. TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

5.1 GEOMETRIC REQUIREMENTS OF DRIVEWAYS

5.1.1 Crossover Width and Turnout Radii

Sufficient width and turnout radii must be provided for the safe turning movement of vehicles either onto or from the carriageway. The width and turnout radii may vary with the expected type and volume of vehicle proposed to use the driveway. Required values are given in the drawings referred to in Table 1 of this guideline.

 

Crossover Type for

Width 

Drawing containing layout details for urban driveways  

Drawing containing layout details for rural driveways  

Low Volume - Light Vehicles

4.5m  

200431-0198  

200431-0191  

Two Way - Light Vehicles

8.0m  

200431-0199  

200431-0192 

 

Single Unit Trucks

9.0m  

200431-0200  

200431-0193  

 

Semi Trailers / Service Stations

11.0m

To be designed individually  

200431-0194  

B Double Trucks

11.0m  

To be designed individually

200431-0195  

Double Road Trains

11.0m

To be designed individually  

200431-0196  

Triple Road Trains

11.0m

To be designed individually 

200431-0197  

Table 1 Crossover Widths

 

Low Vehicle Volume Developments are those that can be serviced by one driveway and generate weekday vehicle movements of less than 10 vehicles per hour on a typical weekday and less than 20 vehicles per hour on a typical weekend day.

Where a wide verge area exists the crossover width may be reduced once the vehicle turning movement has been accommodated. Refer to Figures 3 and 5.

 

Fig 3 - Crossover Width D12#57631.GIF 

Figure 3 Crossover Width

 

5.1.2 Storage Length

Sufficient storage length must be provided for a vehicle to stand clear of the carriageway when stopped. Where the entrance has a gate, the set back from the edge of the carriageway to the gate shall vary with the type of vehicle likely to use the driveway in accordance with Table 2. Also refer to Figure 5.

 

Type of Vehicle

 

Minimum Length

 

Light vehicles

6m  

Single unit trucks

15m  

Semi-trailers and

wide farm machinery

21m  

Long Vehicles & Road Trains

Length of Vehicle + 3m   

 
Table 2 Storage Lengths
 
 

5.1.3 Driveway Profile

Refer to figures 4.1 to 4.5 for typical examples and terminology for driveway profiles.

 

Fig 4.1 - Cross Section of Kerbed Road D12#57632.GIF 

Figure 4.1 Cross Section of Kerbed Road

 

Fig 4.2 - Level Ground Cross Section D12#57634.GIF 

Figure 4.2 - Level Ground Cross Section

 

 

Fig 4.3 - Road In Fill D12#57635.GIF 

Figure 4.3 - Road In Fill

 

 

Fig 4.4 - Road In Cutting D12#57637.GIF 

Figure 4.4 - Road In Cutting

 

Fig 4.5 - Road in Superelevation on curve D12#57638.GIF 

Figure 4.5 - Road in Super-elevation on curve

 

When designing driveway profiles, including the crossover, consideration should be given to the following issues.

 

5.1.3.1.Stormwater Drainage Run Off
 
The following shall apply to new and reconstructed driveways.

The design of driveways abutting the road reserve shall ensure that no water, whether from storm water, garden reticulation, swimming pools, parking areas or other sources is discharged from the property to the road reserve, except where special arrangements have been negotiated, or an approved stormwater drainage scheme has been properly constituted.

The crossover profile shall be graded to ensure that stormwater runoff from the road reserve is directed towards the road drainage system. The driveway profile shall ensure surface run off from the property does not drain onto the road carriageway.

Driveways shall be constructed so as not to impair road drainage. A culvert shall be installed where necessary. The required capacity and size of any culvert shall be determined by the Regional Manager.

 

5.1.3.2.Pedestrian and Cyclist Facilities

Refer to the pedestrian and cyclist facilities guideline. Special consideration should be given to footpath crossfalls.

 

5.1.3.3.Maximum Gradients

Excessively steep grades shall be avoided and consideration should be given to carrying out earthworks on the driveway alignment to reduce the gradient.

For narrow verges, it may be necessary to extend the earthworks into private property, with written agreement of the property owner.

If the proposed driveway has a grade greater than 5% then consideration should be given to also relocating the driveway along the property boundary to achieve a lower gradient.

The recommended maximum grades for driveways are summarised in Table 3.

 

Class of Vehicle

Range of Maximum
Gradient

Commercial

5 - 8 %  

Other

10 - 15 %  

Table 3 Maximum Driveway Gradients


For steep grades, treatment and designs shall be appropriate for the particular design vehicle proposed. Most cars can operate on sealed gradients of 20% (1:5) and large trucks in good mechanical condition with good tyres can operate on sealed gradients of 16.7% (1:6). However, these gradients are considered extreme, even for short distances like driveways.

 

5.1.3.4. Maximum Change of Grade

The maximum change of grade along a driveway shall not be more than 12% (refer to Australian Design Rules). This is to ensure vehicle undersides have clearance over sharp changes of grade and do not "bottom out" on the driveway.

Australian Standard 2890.1 "Parking Facilities Part 1: Off-Street Car Parking" Clause 2.5.3 Circulation roadway and ramp grades, Appendix B Clause B5 Ground Clearance and Appendix C Ground Clearance Templates should also be referred to. Where AS 2890.1 conflicts with this guideline, this guideline shall take precedence.

 

5.1.4 SIGHT DISTANCES

Driveways shall be located in a clear area so as to provide ample sight distance for a stopped vehicle to safely enter the road in a forward direction. Desirably the sight distance provided should be the Safe Intersection Sight Distance in accordance with Main Roads Supplement to Austroads GRD Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections ??? Section 3.. However, where this is not possible, sight distance equal to Stopping Sight Distance for the design speed of the road shall be provided as an absolute minimum. Stopping Sight Distance is defined in Main Roads Supplement to Austroads GRD Part 3: Geometric Design ??? Section 5.

Sight distance requirements shall be met in both directions for a stopped vehicle at a driveway.

As with intersections, the "sight triangle" formed by the drivers' eye to objects on the road and the sight distance length shall be kept clear of obstructions that are greater than 0.2 metres in height. This includes street furniture, landscape elements and parking. Refer to Figure 5.

 

 

 

Fig 5 - Sight Distance D12#57639.GIF 

Figure 5 Sight Distance

 

5.1.5 Internal turn around facility

Where driveways are adjacent to fences or walls, the sight distance requirements in accordance with AS 2890.1 Section 3.2.4 (b) are to be met.

 

5.1.6 Off Road Parking

A new driveway shall incorporate an internal turn around facility or area that enables vehicles to turn around and exit the driveway in a forward direction.

A modified driveway should include provision of a turn around facility.

 

5.1.7 Combined Driveways

Combined driveways to adjoining properties will be permitted on condition that written agreement between adjoining property owners is obtained and that the combined width of driveways at the carriageway edge, exclusive of turn out radii, is specifically designed. For driveways used by low volumes of light vehicles, the maximum width is 8.0m. For driveways used by commercial vehicles, the maximum width is 11.0m. Refer to Figure 6.

Where internal driveways are not separate, then a cross easement for the shared driveway will be required, including a caveat on the title. Refer to Figure 7.

 

 

Fig 6 - Separate Internal Driveways D12#57640.GIF 

Figure 6 - Internal Separate Driveways

 

 

Fig 7 - Combined Internal Driveways D12#57641.GIF 

Figure 7 - Combined Internal Driveways

 
 

5.1.8 Construction

The thickness, type and quality of material required for the pavement is dependent upon site conditions and seasonal driveway requirements. Main Roads' Regional Managers shall be responsible for determining the minimum requirements in each instance. However in urban areas, the crossover shall be constructed to the relevant local government's requirements for materials, but associated works (such as auxiliary lanes) shall be designed and constructed to Main Roads' requirements.

If the frontage road is sealed, then the driveways shall be sealed as follows: -

    • Where the access is directly to a residence, at least the first 6 metres from the road shall be sealed. 
    • Where in the opinion of the Regional Manager, pavement material from the driveway may be carried by water run-off or vehicles on to the seal of the road, then a length determined by the Regional Manager shall be sealed.
    • For driveways to commercial establishments, the Regional Manager, after consultation with the relevant local government and the property owner, shall determine the length/s that shall be sealed.
    • All areas of the road reserve disturbed during construction shall be re-instated within the timeframe stated in the application approval.
 

5.1.9 Maintenance

Maintenance of the crossover (including any drainage structures and headwalls) shall be the responsibility of the property owner.

Main Roads shall maintain all drainage flow, traffic signals, traffic signs, pavement markings and vegetation within the road reserve.

The property owner shall advise the Regional Manager of limitations to sightlines from driveways or any other concerns.

 

5.1.10 References

Main Roads Supplement to Austroads GRD Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections

Australian Standard 2890.1 "Parking Facilities Part 1: Off -Street Car Parking"

Main Roads Supplement to Austroads GRD Part 3: Geometric Design - Section 5

Road Traffic Code 2000

Australian Design Rules for Vehicles & Trailers, Section 7 of the Motor Vehicles Standards Act 1989, Federal Office of Road Safety